The movements of limb segments and joints during locomotion in African and Asian elephants

@article{Ren2008TheMO,
  title={The movements of limb segments and joints during locomotion in African and Asian elephants},
  author={Lei Ren and Melanie Butler and Charlotte E Miller and Heather Paxton and Delf Schwerda and Martin S. Fischer and John R. Hutchinson},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Biology},
  year={2008},
  volume={211},
  pages={2735 - 2751}
}
SUMMARY As the largest extant terrestrial animals, elephants do not trot or gallop but can move smoothly to faster speeds without markedly changing their kinematics, yet with a shift from vaulting to bouncing kinetics. To understand this unusual mechanism, we quantified the forelimb and hindlimb motions of eight Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and seven African elephants (Loxodonta africana). We used 240 Hz motion analysis (tracking 10 joint markers) to measure the flexion/extension angles… 

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