• Corpus ID: 26905511

The mosaic of autoimmunity: hormonal and environmental factors involved in autoimmune diseases--2008.

@article{Shoenfeld2008TheMO,
  title={The mosaic of autoimmunity: hormonal and environmental factors involved in autoimmune diseases--2008.},
  author={Yehuda Shoenfeld and Gisele Zandman-Goddard and Ljudmila Stojanovich and Maurizio Cutolo and Howard Amital and Yair Levy and Mahmoud Abu-Shakra and Ori Barzilai and Yackov Berkun and Miri Blank and Jos{\'e}lio Freire de Carvalho and Andrea Doria and Boris Gilburd and Uriel Katz and Ilan Krause and Pnina Langevitz and Hedi Orbach and Vitor Pordeus and Maya Ram and Elias Toubi and Yaniv Sherer},
  journal={The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ},
  year={2008},
  volume={10 1},
  pages={
          8-12
        }
}
Circadian rhythms are driven by biological clocks and are endogenous in origin [1]. Therefore, circadian changes in the metabolism or secretion of endogenous glucocorticoids are responsible, in part, for the time-dependent changes observed in the immune/inflammatory response and related clinical symptoms (e.g., arthritis). Recently, another circadian hormone, melatonin – the secre-tory product of the pineal gland – was found to be implicated in the time-dependent inflammatory reaction with… 
Stress and autoimmunity.
Infections and autoimmunity: the multifaceted relationship
TLDR
This review focuses on the pivotal role of infection in the induction of autoimmune disorders, and examines microorganisms, not only as causes of infections but also as potential agents able to modulate the immune system.
The mosaic of autoimmunity: the role of environmental factors.
TLDR
Only the environmental factors are reviewed such as: infectious agents, vaccines as triggers of autoimmunity, smoking and its relationship with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel diseases.
Genetics and autoantibodies
TLDR
The genetic predisposition to the developments of autoantibodies and toward the disease process may overlap and the unveiling of these mechanisms could allow not only to treat but also to prevent the development of autoimmune diseases.
Vitamin D and autoimmune thyroid diseases: facts and unresolved questions
TLDR
Low levels of vitamin D were found associated with antithyroid antibody presence, abnormal thyroid function, increased thyroid volume, increased TSH levels, and adverse pregnancy outcome in women with AITD, and further research is needed to define whether it should be introduced in clinical practice.
Effects of tobacco smoke on immunity, inflammation and autoimmunity.
Vitamin D and autoimmune thyroid diseases
TLDR
Significantly low levels of vitamin D were documented in patients with AITDs that were related to the presence of anti thyroid antibodies and abnormal thyroid function tests, suggesting the involvement of vitaminD in the pathogenesis of AITds and the advisability of supplementation.
Explosion of autoimmune diseases and the mosaic of old and novel factors
TLDR
In this issue of the journal, additional aspects of autoimmunity are detailed and it is suggested that immune dysregulation and loss of self-tolerance are the cornerstones of autoIMmunity.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 26 REFERENCES
Nocturnal Hormones and Clinical Rhythms in Rheumatoid Arthritis
TLDR
Altered functioning of the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenocortical axis (reduced corticosteroid production) and of the pineal gland (increased mLT production) found in RA patients seem to be important factors in the perpetuation and clinical circadian symptoms of the disease.
Circadian rhythms and arthritis.
  • M. CutoloA. Masi
  • Medicine, Biology
    Rheumatic diseases clinics of North America
  • 2005
Circadian rhythms in rheumatoid arthritis: implications for pathophysiology and therapeutic management.
TLDR
This review briefly summarizes present knowledge on how circadian rhythm is generated in the central nervous system (CNS) and addresses studies demonstrating connections between the central oscillator and neuroendocrine pathways and the periphery (peripheral inflammation).
TH1/TH2 cytokine profile, metalloprotease‐9 activity and hormonal status in pregnant rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus patients
TLDR
It is suggested that complex immune and hormonal networks are involved in pregnancy and that rheumatic diseases are very dynamic immune processes that cannot be described with a clear‐cut cytokine profile.
Estrogens in Pregnancy and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
TLDR
Data suggest that in SLE patients estradiol serum levels are surprisingly lower than expected during the third trimester of pregnancy, probably due to a placental compromise, which could lead to a lower‐than‐expected increase of IL‐6, accounting for the low humoral immune response and the low disease activity observed in the thirdtrimester ofregnancy in such patients.
Hormonal Regulation of B Cell Development: 17β-Estradiol Impairs Negative Selection of High-Affinity DNA-Reactive B Cells at More Than One Developmental Checkpoint1
TLDR
Evidence is provided that an elevation in serum levels of E2 facilitates the maturation of a pathogenic naive autoreactive B cell repertoire and hampers the m maturity of a potentially protective autore active B cell repertoires.
T(H)1/T(H)2 cytokine profile, metalloprotease-9 activity and hormonal status in pregnant rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus patients.
TLDR
It is suggested that complex immune and hormonal networks are involved in pregnancy and that rheumatic diseases are very dynamic immune processes that cannot be described with a clear-cut cytokine profile.
Tobacco smoking and autoimmune rheumatic diseases
TLDR
Smoking is known to modulate the immune system through many mechanisms, including the induction of the inflammatory response, immune suppression, alteration of cytokine balance, induction of apoptosis, and DNA damage that results in the formation of anti-DNA antibodies.
...
...