OBJECTIVE To evaluate the bone-implant interfaces of two kinds of implants with different surfaces in different time in vivo. METHODS CDIC and ITI-TPS solid-screw cylinder pure titanium implants were selected and implanted in the regions of posterior molars of rhesus monkeys. 1 month, 2 months, 3 months and 1 year after surgery, the bone-implant interfaces were evaluated respectively through oral examination, X-ray inspection, light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation. RESULTS None of the implants was loose. Soft tissue around implants appeared no inflammation. There were no apparent transparent shadow around the implants interfaces in X-ray photos except little angle-shaped absorption was showed in neck region of CDIC implants of one-month. New bone was observed around implants of one-month through light microscope and SEM. More bone growing around ITI implants were seen than that around CDIC implants except the interfaces of one-year. CONCLUSION The osseointegration of ITI implants are better than that of CDIC implants during three months after implanting without loading. The bone formation at the interfaces of ITI and CDIC implants has no significant difference after one year without loading.