To clarify the compensatory hemodynamic alterations in the interstitium of renal allograft biopsies with chronic rejection, we evaluated the morphological changes in the peritubular capillary (PTC) network. Seven renal biopsy specimens from recipients with chronic rejection presenting with elevation of serum creatinine of 1.9 +/- 0.5 mg/dL were examined. Renal biopsy specimens from their counterpart donors were used as normal controls. In each specimen, non-pathological interstitial areas without fibrosis, tubular atrophy or cell infiltration were compared with pathological areas (PA) showing fibrosis and/or tubular atrophy using a computer image analysis. Morphological measurements revealed that the mean cut surface area of the PTC in the non-pathological and pathological interstitial areas in the recipient biopsies were significantly larger than that of the normal controls (p < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). In the recipient biopsies, both of the mean cut surface areas of the tubules and PTC in the non-pathological areas were significantly higher than those in the PA (p < 0.001). The mean glomerular diameter in the recipient biopsies was also significantly higher than that of the donors (p < 0.01). In this study, we provided pathological evidence for the compensatory interstitial and glomerular hemodynamic alterations in kidney graft with chronic rejection and the condition as single kidney.