The monarch butterfly controversy: scientific interpretations of a phenomenon.

@article{Shelton2001TheMB,
  title={The monarch butterfly controversy: scientific interpretations of a phenomenon.},
  author={Anthony M Shelton and Mark K. Sears},
  journal={The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology},
  year={2001},
  volume={27 6},
  pages={
          483-8
        }
}
  • A. Shelton, M. Sears
  • Published 1 September 2001
  • Biology
  • The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology
The future development and use of agricultural biotechnology has been challenged by two preliminary studies indicating potential risk to monarch butterfly populations by pollen from corn engineered to express proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis. Likewise, these studies have also challenged the way in which science should be performed, published in scientific journals and communicated to the public at large. Herein, we provide a history of the monarch controversy to date. We believe a… 
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This technical note, which outlines Monsanto's response to public claims of damage to monarch butterflies from Monsanto's Bt corn, is a good companion piece to cases involving new technology,
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References

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Monarch Bt-corn paper questioned
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  • Biology, Medicine
    Nature Biotechnology
  • 1999
TLDR
The preliminary Cornell experiments reported in Nature indicate that the presence of both transformed and untransformed pollen reduces leaf consumption by the larvae, something that might be expected to have a bearing on larval survival.
Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae
TLDR
In a laboratory assay, it is found that larvae of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, reared on milkweed leaves dusted with pollen from Bt corn, ate less, grew more slowly and suffered higher mortality than larvae rearing on leaves dusting with untransformed corn pollen or on leaves without pollen.
Absence of toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis pollen to black swallowtails under field conditions.
TLDR
It is concluded that Bt pollen of the variety tested is unlikely to affect wild populations of black swallowtails, and the results suggest that at least some potential nontarget effects of the use of transgenic plants may be manageable.
Field deposition of Bt transgenic corn pollen: lethal effects on the monarch butterfly
TLDR
It is predicted that the effects of transgenic pollen on D. plexippus may be observed at least 10 m from transgenic field borders, however, the highest larval mortality will likely occur on A. syriaca plants in corn fields or within 3 m of the edge of a transgenic corn field.
Effects of Corn Plants and Corn Pollen on Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) Oviposition Behavior
TLDR
There were no significant differences in the effects of Bt corn plants or corn pollen compared with untransformed plants or pollen, which may have important implications for the level of exposure of monarch larvae to Bt-corn pollen.
Pest Control, Rumor Control
Scientists need to be more media savvy if they are to communicate clearly to the public the real meaning of their research. Certain crop plants such as corn, soybeans, and cotton have been engineered
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TLDR
The study shows that corn pollen is not transported as far by the wind as smaller pollens, does not disperse as widely in either the horizontal or the vertical direction and settles to earth more quickly, much of it within the source itself.
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TLDR
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Non-target effects of Bt corn pollen on the Monarch butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae)
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Media coverage of GMOs in the USA and UK: who's quoted and what's said. Informing the dialogue about agricultural biotechnology
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