The molecular etiology of breast cancer: evidence from biomarkers of risk.

@article{Gaikwad2008TheME,
  title={The molecular etiology of breast cancer: evidence from biomarkers of risk.},
  author={Nilesh W. Gaikwad and Li Yang and Paola C. Muti and Jane L. Meza and Sandhya Pruthi and James N. Ingle and Eleanor G. Rogan and Ercole L Cavalieri},
  journal={International journal of cancer},
  year={2008},
  volume={122 9},
  pages={1949-57}
}
Estrogens can become endogenous carcinogens via formation of catechol estrogen quinones, which react with DNA to form specific depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts. The mutations resulting from these adducts can lead to cell transformation and the initiation of breast cancer. Estrogen metabolites, conjugates and depurinating DNA adducts in urine samples from 46 healthy control women, 12 high-risk women and 17 women with breast cancer were analyzed. The estrogen metabolites, conjugates and… CONTINUE READING

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