The molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B in the Indigenous people of northern Australia

@article{Davies2013TheME,
  title={The molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B in the Indigenous people of northern Australia},
  author={Jane Davies and Margaret Littlejohn and Stephen Locarnini and Sarah E. Whiting and Krispin M Hajkowicz and Benjamin C Cowie and David Scott Bowden and Steven Y. C. Tong and Joshua S. Davis},
  journal={Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology},
  year={2013},
  volume={28}
}
The hepatitis B surface antigen was first described in the blood of an Indigenous Australian man, yet little is known about its molecular epidemiology in this population, in which it is endemic. The study aimed to determine the clinical and molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Indigenous people from northern Australia. 
Hepatitis B in the Northern Territory: insights into the changing epidemiology of an ancient condition
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are disproportionately affected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. A proposed mismatch between standard vaccines and the HBV/C4 sub‐genotype prevalent
Hepatitis B notifications in a vaccinated cohort of Aboriginal people in the Kimberley region
Objectives: To identify cases of hepatitis B infection after vaccination in Kimberley residents and determine maternal serostatus as a potential indicator of mode of transmission.
Establishing contemporary trends in hepatitis B sero-epidemiology in an Indigenous population
TLDR
HBsAg positivity is high in the NT, particularly in the Indigenous population, but a substantial part of this decrease is due to factors other than the universal vaccination program.
Trends in the prevalence of hepatitis B infection among women giving birth in New South Wales
TLDR
The effect of targeted and catch‐up hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination programs in New South Wales on HBV prevalence among women giving birth for the first time is evaluated.
Molecular virology of hepatitis B virus, sub‐genotype C4 in northern Australian Indigenous populations
TLDR
The HBV C4 variant found in this population has a high potential to cause advanced liver disease and to escape vaccination programs.
Molecular characterisation of hepatitis B virus isolated from human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults at various time points after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy
Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Medicine November
Hepatitis B virus epidemiology.
TLDR
The increased recognition of HBV infection as a leading cause of death globally has resulted in the development of new structures and policies at the international level; immediate attention to implementing these strategies is now required.
Point of care and oral fluid hepatitis B testing in remote Indigenous communities of northern Australia
TLDR
The venous blood point of care test (POCT) or oral fluid laboratory test could be used to identify individuals with chronic HBV infection in high prevalence communities with limited access to health care.
Hepatitis B virus and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 co-infection in the Northern Territory, Australia.
  • I. Marr, J. Davies, R. Baird
  • Medicine, Biology
    International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
  • 2017
Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes
TLDR
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) was discovered as the “Australian antigen” by Blumberg et al. in 1965 and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1976.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 46 REFERENCES
The investigation of a ‘cluster’ of hepatitis B in teenagers from an Indigenous community in North Queensland
TLDR
Hepatitis B vaccine should have been offered to thiscohort of teenagers in a ‘catch–up’ program during the late 1980s when they were of preschool age.
Estimates of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Australia, 2000
TLDR
The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Australia and attributable proportions associated with specific demographic groups at higher risk of infection are estimated to be about 1 in 10,000.
Further observations on the immune response to recombinant hepatitis B vaccine after administration to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island children
To determine the prevalence of markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunity and infection at 5 years of age in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island children who were fully vaccinated in infancy, and to
Hepatitis B virus markers in children and staff in Northern Territory schools
TLDR
To measure the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in children and staff at Northern Territory schools, data is collected on students, teachers and staff from September to December of each year.
Screening for hepatitis B in East Arnhem Land: a high prevalence of chronic infection despite incomplete screening
TLDR
HBV is an incompletely defined, under‐resourced and substantial public health problem in Aboriginal Australians, and current seroprevalences in Northern Territory communities are unknown.
Comparative study of genotype B and C hepatitis B virus‐induced chronic hepatitis in relation to the basic core promoter and precore mutations
TLDR
The clinicopathological profiles and outcome of chronic hepatitis B can differ by hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes, and the basic core promoter and precore mutations are other known viral factors for disease activity.
Epidemic History and Evolutionary Dynamics of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Two Remote Communities in Rural Nigeria
TLDR
Investigation of the molecular epidemiology and epidemic history of HBV infection in two semi-isolated rural communities in North/Central Nigeria suggests a massive introduction and relatively recent HBV/E expansion in the human population in Africa.
Hepatitis B infection of children in a mixed‐race community in western New South Wales
TLDR
It is concluded that in this and similar mixed‐race communities action should be taken to accelerate vaccination programmes aimed at reducing HBY infection among neonates and children in the high‐risk groups.
Molecular epidemiology and variation of hepatitis B in recent immigrant families to Australia
TLDR
Natural variation in hepatitis B virus (HBV) was studied in asymptomatic carriers originating from countries of high endemicity and there was some evidence of horizontal spread in addition to vertical transmission.
Incomplete protection against hepatitis B among remote Aboriginal adolescents despite full vaccination in infancy.
TLDR
There was relatively poor long-term serological immunity to HBV vaccination in a cohort of adolescents who received plasma-derived HBV vaccine in 1989 and 1990 in a remote Australian Aboriginal community, raising the concern that a significant proportion of Aboriginal adolescents in other remote communities were not adequately protected by the vaccine.
...
...