The missing variable: ultrasonic vocalizations reveal hidden sensitization and tolerance-like effects during long-term cocaine administration

@article{Maier2011TheMV,
  title={The missing variable: ultrasonic vocalizations reveal hidden sensitization and tolerance-like effects during long-term cocaine administration},
  author={Esther Y. Maier and Mohamed I Abdalla and Allison M. Ahrens and Timothy J Schallert and Christine L. Duvauchelle},
  journal={Psychopharmacology},
  year={2011},
  volume={219},
  pages={1141-1152}
}
Subtypes of 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in rats are thought to reflect positive affect and occur with cocaine or amphetamine delivery. In contexts predicting forthcoming cocaine, pre-drug anticipatory USVs are initially minimal during daily sessions but gradually escalate over several weeks, presumably as the animal learns to expect and look forward to impending drug access. To gain more insight into motivational aspects of cocaine intake in animal models of drug dependence studies… CONTINUE READING