Corpus ID: 17652113

The mirror test

@inproceedings{Gallup2002TheMT,
  title={The mirror test},
  author={G. Gallup and James R Anderson and Daniel J. Shillito},
  year={2002}
}
Can animals recognize themselves in mirrors? Gallup (1970) conducted an experimental test of this question using a relatively simple approach. Individually housed chimpanzees were confronted with a full-length mirror outside their cages for a period of 10 days. The chimpanzees initially reacted as if they were seeing another chimpanzee and engaged in a variety of social displays directed toward the reflection. These social responses waned after the first few days. Rather than continue to… Expand
What mirror self-recognition in nonhumans can tell us about aspects of self
Research on mirror self-recognition where animals are observed for mirror-guided self-directed behaviour has predominated the empirical approach to self-awareness in nonhuman primates. The ability toExpand
Sneaking a peek: pigeons use peripheral vision (not mirrors) to find hidden food
TLDR
It is found that pigeons do not use the reflection of mirrors to locate reward, but actually see the food peripherally with their near-panoramic vision, suggesting that use of reflections in a mirrored surface as a tool may be less widespread than currently thought. Expand
Are horses capable of mirror self-recognition? A pilot study
TLDR
The lack of correspondence between the collected stimuli in front of the mirror and the response to the colored mark lead us to affirm that horses are able to perceive that the reflected image is incongruent when compared with the memorized information of a real horse. Expand
A new mark test for mirror self-recognition in non-human primates
TLDR
A new variant of the mark test is devised which permits more unequivocal decisions about both the presence and absence of self-recognition, and an evolutionary hypothesis is put forward as to why many primates can use a mirror instrumentally – i.e. know how to use it for grasping at hidden objects – while failing in the decisive mark test. Expand
Do rhesus monkeys recognize themselves in mirrors?
TLDR
It is concluded that the article fails to provide acceptable evidence for self‐recognition in rhesus monkeys. Expand
Exploring the behavioral reactions to a mirror in the nocturnal grey mouse lemur: sex differences in avoidance
TLDR
This pilot study opens a discussion on the behavioral differences between males and females regarding social interactions and reproduction in the nocturnal solitary species, and suggests that males are more sensitive to context of stimulation than females. Expand
Crows (Corvus corone ssp.) check contingency in a mirror yet fail the mirror-mark test.
TLDR
These findings could indicate that crows lack a concept of self, or the need for other means of investigating self-recognition and self-awareness in avian species. Expand
Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) respond to video images of themselves
TLDR
Although capuchin monkeys showed no signs of explicit self-recognition, their behaviour strongly suggests recognition of the correspondence between kinaesthetic information and external visual effects in species such as humans and great apes. Expand
Mirror, mirror, on the wall, is that even my hand at all? Changes in the afterimage of one's reflection in a mirror in response to bodily movement
TLDR
The results suggest that the explicit knowledge that one is looking at a mirror as well as online visual feedback from bodily movement are unlikely to be responsible for previously observed interactions between vision and touch, and it is proposed that a sense of ownership, and (bodily) self-awareness, might in part explain these interactions between Vision and proprioception. Expand
Which Primates Recognize Themselves in Mirrors?
TLDR
It is concluded that there is no compelling evidence for mirror self-recognition in any non-ape primate species. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 57 REFERENCES
Reflections on self-recognition in primates
Abstract Abstract. Evidence that apes touch head marks more in the presence of a mirror than in its absence have been taken to indicate that, unlike monkeys, they are capable of self-recognition andExpand
Self-recognition in primates: phylogeny and the salience of species-typical features.
TLDR
The mirror test may not be sufficient for assessing the concept of self or mental state attribution in nonlinguistic organisms, and an individual's sensitivity to experimentally modified parts of its body may depend crucially on the relative saliency of the modified part. Expand
Chimpanzees recognize themselves in mirrors
Abstract Heyes’ (1994, Anim. Behav., 97, 909–919; 1995, Anim. Behav., 50, 1533–1542) recent account of chimpanzees’, Pan troglodytes, reactions to mirrors challenged the view that they are capable ofExpand
Responses of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to different conditions of mirror-image stimulation
Group-living brown capuchins were given mirror-image stimulation as follows: (1) mirror 1 m away; (2) mirror attached to the cage-mesh; (3) angled mirrors creating a deflected image; (4) small mirrorExpand
Self‐awareness and the emergence of mind in primates
  • G. G. Gallup
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • American journal of primatology
  • 1982
TLDR
An attempt is made to show that self‐awareness, consciousness, and mind are not mutually exclusive cognitive categories and that the emergence of self-awareness may be equivalent to the emergenceof mind. Expand
Further reflections on self-recognition in primates
Abstract A review of the literature, together with a reanalysis of existing data and some additional data, was used to show that Heyes' (1994, Anim. Behav. , 47 , 909–919) recent critique ofExpand
Factors affecting mirror behaviour in western lowland gorillas,Gorilla gorilla
TLDR
An angled-mirror apparatus developed by Anderson & Roeder was used that prevented two gorillas at the National Zoological Park from making direct eye contact with their reflections and showed no evidence of self-recognition, even after over 4 years of mirror exposure. Expand
Development of self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).
TLDR
The results suggest that self-recognition occurs at a slightly older age in chimpanzees than in human infants, and conform to the general pattern that great apes exhibit many cognitive skills comparable to those of 2-year-old humans. Expand
Self-recognition in chimpanzees and orangutans, but not gorillas
Recognition of one's own reflection in a mirror qualifies as an objective test of self-awareness. Although most primates appear incapable of learning that their behavior is the source of the behaviorExpand
Self-Recognition in Chimpanzees and Man: A Developmental and Comparative Perspective
The concept of self has not only been held to be uniquely human, but essential to the beginnings of effective social and intellectual functioning in the growing child. While the self has been andExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...