The minimum-mass extrasolar nebula: in situ formation of close-in super-Earths

@article{Chiang2013TheME,
  title={The minimum-mass extrasolar nebula: in situ formation of close-in super-Earths},
  author={Eugene Chiang and Gregory Laughlin},
  journal={Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
  year={2013},
  volume={431},
  pages={3444-3455}
}
Close-in super-Earths, with radii R = 2-5 R_Earth and orbital periods P < 100 days, orbit more than half, and perhaps nearly all Sun-like stars in the universe. We use this omnipresent population to construct the minimum-mass extrasolar nebula (MMEN), the circumstellar disk of solar-composition solids and gas from which such planets formed, if they formed near their current locations and did not migrate. In a series of back-of-the-envelope calculations, we demonstrate how in-situ formation in… Expand

Figures from this paper

The formation of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes with giant impacts
The majority of discovered exoplanetary systems harbour a new class of planets, bodies that are typically several times more massive than the Earth but that orbit their host stars well inside theExpand
Formation of close in Super-Earths \& Mini-Neptunes: Required Disk Masses \& Their Implications
Recent observations by the {\it Kepler} space telescope have led to the discovery of more than 4000 exoplanet candidates consisting of many systems with Earth- to Neptune-sized objects that resideExpand
The Influence of Magnetic Field Geometry on the Formation of Close-in Exoplanets
Approximately half of Sun-like stars harbor exoplanets packed within a radius of ~0.3 au, but the formation of these planets and why they form in only half of known systems are still not wellExpand
No universal minimum-mass extrasolar nebula: evidence against in situ accretion of systems of hot super-Earths
It has been proposed that the observed systems of hot super-Earths formed in situ from high-mass disks. By fitting a disk profile to the entire population of Kepler planet candidates, Chiang &Expand
On the formation of super-Earths with implications for the solar system
We first consider how the level of turbulence in a protoplanetary disk affects the formation locations for the observed close-in super-Earths in exosolar systems. We find that a protoplanetary diskExpand
The imprint of the protoplanetary disc in the accretion of super-Earth envelopes
Super-Earths are by far the most dominant type of exoplanet, yet their formation is still not well understood. In particular, planet formation models predict that many of them should have accretedExpand
THE IN SITU FORMATION OF GIANT PLANETS AT SHORT ORBITAL PERIODS
We propose that two of the most surprising results so far among exoplanet discoveries are related: the existences of both hot Jupiters and the high frequency of multi-planet systems with periodsExpand
The Formation and Dynamics of Super-Earth Planets
Super-Earths, objects slightly larger than Earth and slightly smaller than Uranus, have found a special place in exoplanetary science. As a new class of planetary bodies, these objects haveExpand
Close-in Super-Earths: The first and the last stages of planet formation in an MRI-accreting disc
We explore in situ formation and subsequent evolution of close-in super-Earths and mini-Neptunes. We adopt a steady-state inner protoplanetary gas disc structure that arises from viscous accretionExpand
Vulcan Planets: Inside-Out Formation of the Innermost Super-Earths
The compact multi-transiting systems discovered by Kepler challenge traditional planet formation theories. These fall into two broad classes: (1) formation further out followed by migration; (2)Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 81 REFERENCES
A Minimum-Mass Extrasolar Nebula
By analogy with the minimum-mass solar nebula, we construct a surface-density profile using the orbits of the 26 precise-Doppler planets found in multiple-planet systems: Σ = 2200 (a/1 AU)-β g cm-2,Expand
The Occurrence and Mass Distribution of Close-in Super-Earths, Neptunes, and Jupiters
TLDR
The occurrence rate of close-in planets (with orbital periods less than 50 days), based on precise Doppler measurements of 166 Sun-like stars, is reported, indicating that theoretical models of planet formation predict a deficit of planets in the domain from 5 to 30 Earth masses and with orbital periods under 50 days are in fact well populated. Expand
A super-Earth transiting a nearby low-mass star
TLDR
Observations of the transiting planet GJ’1214b are reported, finding that the planetary mass and radius are consistent with a composition of primarily water enshrouded by a hydrogen–helium envelope that is only 0.05% of the mass of the planet. Expand
IN SITU ACCRETION OF HYDROGEN-RICH ATMOSPHERES ON SHORT-PERIOD SUPER-EARTHS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE KEPLER-11 PLANETS
Motivated by recent discoveries of low-density super-Earths with short orbital periods, we have investigated in situ accretion of H-He atmospheres on rocky bodies embedded in dissipating warm disks,Expand
FORMATION AND STRUCTURE OF LOW-DENSITY EXO-NEPTUNES
Kepler has found hundreds of Neptune-size (2-6 R{sub +}) planet candidates within 0.5 AU of their stars. The nature of the vast majority of these planets is not known because their masses have notExpand
TOWARD A DETERMINISTIC MODEL OF PLANETARY FORMATION. VI. DYNAMICAL INTERACTION AND COAGULATION OF MULTIPLE ROCKY EMBRYOS AND SUPER-EARTH SYSTEMS AROUND SOLAR-TYPE STARS
Radial velocity and transit surveys indicate that solar-type stars bear super-Earths, with masses up to ~20 M ⊕ and periods up to a few months, that are more common than those with Jupiter-mass gasExpand
Formation and structure of the three Neptune-mass planets system around HD 69830
Since the discovery of the first giant planet outside the solar system in 1995 (Mayor & Queloz 1995, Nature, 378, 355), more than 180 extrasolar planets have been discovered. With improving detectionExpand
A ground-based transmission spectrum of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ 1214b
TLDR
A ground-based measurement of the transmission spectrum of GJ 1214b between wavelengths of 780 and 1,000 nm is reported, finding the lack of features in this spectrum rules out cloud-free atmospheres composed primarily of hydrogen. Expand
TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION. I. THE TRANSITION FROM OLIGARCHIC GROWTH TO CHAOTIC GROWTH
We use a hybrid, multiannulus, n-body-coagulation code to investigate the growth of kilometer-sized planetesimals at 0.4-2 AU around a solar-type star. After a short runaway growth phase,Expand
MIGRATION THEN ASSEMBLY: FORMATION OF NEPTUNE-MASS PLANETS INSIDE 1 AU
We demonstrate that the observed distribution of 'hot Neptune'/'super-Earth' systems is well reproduced by a model in which planet assembly occurs in situ, with no significant migrationExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...