The microevolution of the Galápagos marine iguana Amblyrhynchus cristatus assessed by nuclear and mitochondrial genetic analyses

  title={The microevolution of the Gal{\'a}pagos marine iguana Amblyrhynchus cristatus assessed by nuclear and mitochondrial genetic analyses},
  author={Kornelia Rassmann and Diethard Tautz and Fritz Trillmich and Chris Gliddon},
  journal={Molecular Ecology},
Marine iguanas may have inhabited the Galápagos archipelago and its former, now sunken islands for more than 10 million years (Myr). It is therefore surprising that morphological and immunological data indicate little evolutionary divergence within the genus. We utilized mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analyses and nuclear DNA fingerprinting to re‐evaluate the level and pattern of genetic differentiation among 22 marine iguana populations from throughout the archipelago. Both genetic marker… 
Hybridization between the Galapagos land and marine iguana (Conolophus subcristatus and Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on Plaza Sur
The hybrid status of a morphologically unusual iguana from this island is confirmed, using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of the Galapagos iguana, and it was the offspring of a female land iguana and a male marine iguana.
Genetic differentiation between marine iguanas from different breeding sites on the island of Santa Fe (Galapagos Archipelago).
We studied patterns of genetic diversity within and among 5 populations (318 individuals) of Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) from the island Santa Fé. Populations were separated by
The complete mitochondrial genomes of the Galápagos iguanas, Amblyrhynchus cristatus and Conolophus subcristatus
The complete mitochondrial genomes of the marine iguana Amblyrhynchus cristatus and the land iguana Conolophus subcristatus are described and a phylogeny of the Iguanidae is presented, which confirms the sister-group relationship of Galápagos iguanas.
Genetic biogeography among insular populations of the amphidromous fish Plecoglossus altivelis assessed from mitochondrial DNA analysis
The geneticvariability observed on each island is brought about by its dynamic equilibrium maintained by continuous immigration and local extinction, depending on the geographical location of the island relative to the mainland together with the size of the mainland.
Progressive colonization and restricted gene flow shape island-dependent population structure in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)
This study is a nice example of how recently developed analytical tools such as Bayesian clustering analysis and DNA sequence-based demographic analyses can overcome potential biases introduced by simply relying on FST estimates from markers with different inheritance patterns.
Hybridization masks speciation in the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana
It is hypothesized that the observed interplay of speciation and hybridization might be a mechanism by which local adaptations, generated by incipient speciation, can be absorbed into a common gene pool, thereby enhancing the evolutionary potential of the species as a whole.
Population genetics of Galápagos land iguana (genus Conolophus) remnant populations
Although the initial captive breeding programmes, coupled with intensive efforts to eradicate introduced species, saved several land iguana populations from extinction, the molecular results provide objective data for improving in situ species survival plans and population management for this spectacular and emblematic reptile.
Population Genetic Structure and Conservation of the Galápagos Petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia)
For conservation purposes, populations from Floreana, Santa Cruz, San Cristóbal and Santiago should be regarded as separate genetic management units and all five populations should be protected.
Conservation of Galápagos land iguanas: genetic monitoring and predictions of a long‐term program on the island of Santa Cruz
Analysis of the population genetic structure of land iguanas from Santa Cruz Island to investigate the genetic implications of a semi‐captive conservation program and suggest the genetic measures that should be adopted to avoid further genetic variability depletion and preserve this vulnerable endemic species.
Hierarchical population genetic analysis reveals metapopulation structure in a phytophagous Galápagos beetle
A metapopulation structure with Tent extinctions and recolonisations of populations within each island is strongly suggested, and recent field observations support these findings.


Variation among populations of Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus): contrasts of phylogeny and ecology
A phylogenetic scheme derived via multivariate analyses of adaptively neutral scale characteristics is compared to patterns of ecological adaptation in body size and shape, hatchling size, clutch size, and reproductive seasonality, in extant populations of Galapagos land iguanas, finding that adaptation to local conditions by iguana populations is apparently more important than phylogenetic constraint in explaining variation in ecological characteristics.
Discordance of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA phylogenies in Hawaiian Drosophila.
  • R. DeSalleL. Giddings
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1986
It is concluded that hybridization of the species in this group has been an important factor in the evolution of the nuclear genomes.
Character congruence and phylogenetic signal in molecular and morphological data sets: a case study in the living Iguanas (Squamata, Iguanidae).
It is argued that this extreme results in an unacceptable loss of phylogenetic information, and a single phylogenetic hypothesis for all living genera of iguanas is presented, which is significantly more parsimonious than either of two previously published trees.
Separating population structure from population history: a cladistic analysis of the geographical distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum.
This paper shows how a nested cladistic analysis of geographical distances can be used to test the null hypothesis of no geographical association of haplotypes, test the hypothesis that significant associations are due to restricted gene flow, and identify patterns of significant association that is due to historical events.
A molecular phylogeny for marine turtles: trait mapping, rate assessment, and conservation relevance.
Sequence divergences at intergeneric and interfamilial levels, when assessed against fossil-based separation times, support previous suggestions that mitochondrial DNA in marine turtles evolves much more slowly than under the "conventional" vertebrate clock.
The Earliest Iguanine Lizard (Reptilia: Squamata) and its Bearing on Iguanine Phylogeny
The phylogenetic relationships among iguanines are reevaluated with the inclusion of this and another recently described fossil iguanine, and the fossil taxa increase the amount of phylogenetic resolution, and a single most parsimonious tree is found.
Phylogeographic histories of representative herpetofauna of the southwestern U.S.: mitochondrial DNA variation in the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) and the chuckwalla (Sauromalus obesus)
To determine whether genetic variation in representative reptiles of the southwestern U.S. may have been similarly molded by the geologic history of the lower Colorado River, restriction site polymorphisms in the mitochondrial DNA of desert iguanas and chuckwallas were examined.
Temporal and spatial heterogeneity of mtDNA polymorphisms in natural populations of Drosophila mercatorum.
The mtDNA data in conjunction with the isozyme data show that the population structure of the Kamuela D. mercatorum is close to the boundary line separating panmixia from subdivision, a conclusion that could not be made from iso enzyme data alone.
Galapagos iguanas: Amblyrhynchus and Conolophus serum protein relationships.
The serum proteins of two genera of Galapagos iguanas were studied by means of immunochemical and electrophoretic methods and it was indicated that the antigenic profile of the Santa Cruz, Hood, Tower, Albemarle and James Island populations of Amblyrhynchus were identical.
Evolution of the cytochrome b gene of mammals.
Comparisons of these cytochrome b sequences support current structure-function models for this membrane-spanning protein, which suggests that the outer surface which includes the Qo redox center is more constrained than the remainder of the molecule, namely, the transmembrane segments and the surface that protrudes into the mitochondrial matrix.