The metabolism of ethyl and n-propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (“parabens”) in male cats

  title={The metabolism of ethyl and n-propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (“parabens”) in male cats},
  author={John C. Phillips and Christopher Topp and Sharat D. Gangolli},
  journal={Toxicology Letters},
Safety assessment of propyl paraben: a review of the published literature.
Metabolism of xenobiotics in the incubated hen's egg: investigations with ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate.
4,4'-dihydroxy-L-ornithuric acid [2,5-bis-(4-hydroxybenzoylamino)pentanoic acid] is a new metabolite, elucidated by synthesis and spectral methods (MS, 1H and 13C NMR).
Safety assessment of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens).
  • M. Soni, I. Carabin, G. Burdock
  • Biology
    Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2005
Reviewing the binding of a series of parabens to human serum albumin
The results indicate that parabens weakly interact with HSA thus suggesting that they are in a free form in blood and therefore more available to reach tissues.
Oestrogenic activity of p‐hydroxybenzoic acid (common metabolite of paraben esters) and methylparaben in human breast cancer cell lines
It can be concluded that removal of the ester group from parabens does not abrogate its oestrogenic activity and that p‐hydroxybenzoic acid can give oestrogensic responses in human breast cancer cells.
Final Amended Report on the Safety Assessment of Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben as used in Cosmetic Products 1
  • Chemistry
  • 2008
Parabens is the name given to a group of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) esters used in over 22,000 cosmetics as preservatives at concentrations up to 0.8% (mixtures of parabens) or up to 0.4% (single
Final amended report on the safety assessment of Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben as used in cosmetic products.
Parabens have been extensively studied to evaluate male reproductive toxicity and are generally nonmutagenic, although Ethyl paraben and Methylparaben did increase chromosomal aberrations in a Chinese Hamster ovary cell assay.
Concentrations of parabens in human breast tumours
Initial studies reported here show that parabens can be extracted from human breast tissue and detected by thin‐layer chromatography and this should open the way technically for more detailed information to be obtained on body burdens of paraben and in particular whether body burdens are different in cancer from those in normal tissues.
Paraben Compounds—Part I: An Overview of Their Characteristics, Detection, and Impacts
This work gives an overview about the paraben problem, starting with their characteristics and applications, and the dangers related to their usage were addressed through the evaluation of toxicological studies over different species as well as of humans.


Metabolism of Drugs. XXVII. Metabolic Fate of p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid and its Derivatives in Rabbit. (3).
Alkyl p-hydroxybenzoates were investigated in rabbits using oral dose levels of 0.4 and 0.8 g./kg.
p-Hydroxybenzoic acid esters as preservatives. III. The physiological disposition of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and its esters.
High plasma levels and urinary output of free and conjugated p-hydroxybenzoic acid in dogs indicate that hydrolysis of the ester linkage and metabolic conjugation constitute the chief paths of alteration for all of theEsters studied except the butyl derivative.
The fate of benzoic acid in various species.
It appears that the hedgehog and ferret are like the dog in respect to their metabolism of benzoic acid, and the Indian fruit bat produced only traces of hippuric acid and possibly has a defect in the glycine conjugation of benzosic acid.
Spektralfluorometrischer Nachweis in situ von 4-Hydroxyhippursäure im Harn nach Hochspannungselektrophorese
ZusammenfassungHarn wurde ionenaustausch-chromatographisch an Sephadex DEAE A-25 fraktioniert. Fluoreszierende Fraktionen wurden hochspannungselektrophoretisch weiter getrennt und die