The mental health continuum: from languishing to flourishing in life.

  title={The mental health continuum: from languishing to flourishing in life.},
  author={Corey Lee M. Keyes},
  journal={Journal of health and social behavior},
  volume={43 2},
  • C. Keyes
  • Published 1 June 2002
  • Psychology
  • Journal of health and social behavior
This paper introduces and applies an operationalization of mental health as a syndrome of symptoms of positive feelings and positive functioning in life. Dimensions and scales of subjective well-being are reviewed and conceived of as mental health symptoms. A diagnosis of the presence of mental health, described as flourishing, and the absence of mental health, characterized as languishing, is applied to data from the 1995 Midlife in the United States study of adults between the ages of 25 and… 

Tables from this paper

Flourishing in Life: An Empirical Test of the Dual Continua Model of Mental Health and Mental Illness among Canadian University Students

In the conventional paradigm, mental health and illness exist on a single continuum where the emphasis is on the presence or absence of pathological outcomes. By contrast, a new theoretical framework

Flourishing, languishing and moderate mental health: Prevalence and change in mental health during recovery from drug and alcohol problems

Abstract The aim was to explore the utility of Keyes’ concept of mental health in a substance addiction context. Mental health is considered the presence of emotional wellbeing in conjunction with

Mental Illness and Mental Health: The Two Continua Model Across the Lifespan

It was found that older adults, except for the oldest-old, scored lower on psychopathological symptoms and were less likely to be mentally ill than younger adults, and the validity of the two continua model in adult development was supported.

Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health.

  • C. Keyes
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of consulting and clinical psychology
  • 2005
Confirmatory factor analyses supported the hypothesis that measures of mental health (i.e., emotional, psychological, and social well-being) and mental illness constitute separate correlated unipolar dimensions.

Change in level of positive mental health as a predictor of future risk of mental illness.

Gains in mental health predicted declines in mental illness, supporting the call for public mental health promotion; losses ofmental health predicted increases in mental Illness, supportingThe call forPublic mental health protection.

Levels of Mental Health Continuum and Personality Traits

Empirically, mental health and mental illness are not opposite ends of a single measurement continuum. In view of this fact, Keyes (J Health Soc Behav, 43:207–202, 2002) operationalizes mental health

A developmental-contextual approach to understanding mental health and well-being in early adulthood.

Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing: a complementary strategy for improving national mental health.

  • C. Keyes
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American psychologist
  • 2007
The conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society are summarized.

Flourishing or Languishing? The Relationship Between Mental Health, Health Locus of Control and Generalised Self-Efficacy

Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether health LOC and GSE predicted mental health, after controlling for self-esteem, social support, and coping and indicated that GSE was a significant unique positive predictor of mental health.

Chronological and subjective age differences in flourishing mental health and major depressive episode

As predicted by the model of subjective age as an adaptive strategy, feeling younger was related to a lower risk of MDE and a higher risk of FMH, but wanting to be younger was unrelated to MDE.



Mental Health: A Report of the Surgen General

It is made evident that the neuroscience of mental health-a term that encompasses studies extending from molecular events to psychological, behavioral, and societal phenomena-has emerged as one of the most exciting arenas of scientific activity and human inquiry.

The structure of psychological well-being: a sociohistorical analysis.

The present data suggest that historically bounded role expectations shape the evaluative schemata people use to judge their own well-being, through which men have begun to base their self-evaluations less on work-related issues and more on family life, whereas women have shown a lesser opposite trend.

Dimensions of mental health: Life satisfaction, positive affect, anxiety and depression

Psychological well-being and psychological distress are often regarded as distinct, if not orthogonal dimensions of mental health. Based on analyses in this paper, we consider the distinction

The structure of psychological well-being revisited

A theoretical model of psychological well-being that encompasses 6 distinct dimensions of wellness (Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, Personal Growth, Positive Relations with Others, Purpose in Life,

Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey.

The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is greater than previously thought to be the case, and morbidity is more highly concentrated than previously recognized in roughly one sixth of the population who have a history of three or more comorbid disorders.

Impairment in pure and comorbid generalized anxiety disorder and major depression at 12 months in two national surveys.

It is shown that a substantial amount of generalized anxiety disorder occurs independently of major depression and that the role impairment of generalizedxiety disorder is comparable to that ofmajor depression.

Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being.

Reigning measures of psychological well-being have little theoretical grounding, despite an extensive literature on the contours of positive functioning. Aspects of well-being derived from this

Depression, disability days, and days lost from work in a prospective epidemiologic survey.

The threshold for identifying clinically significant depression may need to be reevaluated to include persons with fewer symptoms but measurable morbidity, only by changing the nosology can the societal impact of depression be adequately addressed.

Clinical Course of Affective Disorders

The interest in studies on the course of affective disorders has greatly increased as a spin-off of the introduction of long-term medication and prophylaxis as well as from the therapeutic point of view.