The memory of the women's white faces: Japaneseness and the ideal image of women

@article{Ashikari2003TheMO,
  title={The memory of the women's white faces: Japaneseness and the ideal image of women},
  author={Mikiko Ashikari},
  journal={Japan Forum},
  year={2003},
  volume={15},
  pages={55 - 79}
}
During the Meiji period, the white face became the woman's face, whereas in the pre-modern period, certain men needed to put white powder on their faces every day. An examination of changes in clothing and fashion in relation to the Meiji state's policies on gender reveals that representations of the man's face and of the woman's face have been differently modernized and Westernized since the encounter with Western culture. The division by gender along the lines of Western clothing/unmade-up… 
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