The memory function of sleep

  title={The memory function of sleep},
  author={Susanne Diekelmann and Jan Born},
  journal={Nature Reviews Neuroscience},
Sleep has been identified as a state that optimizes the consolidation of newly acquired information in memory, depending on the specific conditions of learning and the timing of sleep. Consolidation during sleep promotes both quantitative and qualitative changes of memory representations. Through specific patterns of neuromodulatory activity and electric field potential oscillations, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep support system consolidation and synaptic consolidation… 
The effect of sleep‐specific brain activity versus reduced stimulus interference on declarative memory consolidation
Evidence is provided that brief periods of daytime sleep in healthy adolescents, compared with equal periods of waking, promote the consolidation of declarative memory (word‐pairs) in participants with high power in the electroencephalographic sleep spindle (sigma) frequency range, which supports the notion that sleep‐specific brain activity when reaching a critical dose promotes synaptic plasticity in a hippocampal‐neocortical network that underlies the consolidated memory.
Mechanisms of systems memory consolidation during sleep
This review provides a concise overview of how the sleeping brain transforms and builds persisting memories through this process, highlighting hippocampal replay that captures episodic memory aspects and brain oscillations hallmarking slow-wave and rapid-eye movement sleep.
Sleep and Memory Consolidation: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges
Participation in the Master-modul " Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience " , Univ. of Zurich Regular Seminars for Psychology Students on Memory, Sleep, and Neuroscientific Methods (fmri, Eeg)
Sleep has been identified as a state that optimizes the consolidation of newly acquired information in memory, depending on the specific conditions of learning and the timing of sleep, through specific patterns of neuromodulatory activity and electric field potential oscillations.
Hippocampal memory consolidation during sleep: a comparison of mammals and birds
Avian sleep does not appear to be involved in transferring hippocampal memories to other brain regions, and the slow‐oscillation, the defining feature of mammalian and avian SWS, may serve a more general function independent of that related to coordinating the transfer of information from the hippocampus to the PFC in mammals.
Memory corticalization triggered by REM sleep: mechanisms of cellular and systems consolidation
The body of evidence suggests that memory corticalization triggered by REM sleep is a systemic phenomenon with cellular and molecular causes, with a focus on the emerging role of kinases and immediate-early genes for the progressive corticalization of hippocampus-dependent memories.
Neurophysiological Basis of Sleep’s Function on Memory and Cognition
Behavioral evidence for sleep’s role in selective remembering and forgetting of declarative memories, in generalization of these memories, and in motor skill consolidation is presented.
Sleep smart—optimizing sleep for declarative learning and memory
This review briefly introduces the basic concepts and central findings of the research on sleep and memory, and discusses implications of this lab-based work for everyday applications to make the best possible use of sleep's beneficial effect on learning and memory.
Hippocampal ripples and memory consolidation


The contribution of sleep to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation
Learning-Dependent Increases in Sleep Spindle Density
Results indicate that spindle activity during non-REM sleep is sensitive to previous learning experience, and spindle density was correlated to recall performance both before and after sleep.
Memory consolidation during sleep: Interactive effects of sleep stages and HPA regulation
It is shown that the different sleep stages and the concomitant glucocorticoid release are interactively involved in the consolidation of different types of memories and the importance of pituitary–adrenal inhibition during early SWS-rich sleep for efficient consolidation of declarative memory.
Sleep to Remember
  • J. Born, B. Rasch, S. Gais
  • Biology, Psychology
    The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry
  • 2006
A central role for consolidating memories is played by the slow oscillation, that is, the oscillating field potential change dominating SWS, which synchronizes the occurrence of sharp wave ripples accompanying memory reactivations in the hippocampus with thalamocortical spindle activity.
Learning‐dependent changes in sleep spindles and Stage 2 sleep
Following an intense period of simple motor procedural learning, the duration of Stage 2 sleep and spindle density increased, and the hypothesis that sleep spindles are involved in the off‐line reprocessing ofsimple motor procedural memory during Stage 2Sleep is supported.
Overnight verbal memory retention correlates with the number of sleep spindles
Impaired Off-Line Consolidation of Motor Memories After Combined Blockade of Cholinergic Receptors During REM Sleep-Rich Sleep
It is shown in healthy young men that off-line consolidation of a motor skill during a period of late sleep with high amounts of REM sleep depends essentially on high cholinergic activity, which is an essential factor promoting sleep-dependent consolidation of motor skills.
Local sleep and learning
It is shown that sleep homeostasis indeed has a local component, which can be triggered by a learning task involving specific brain regions, and that the local increase in SWA after learning correlates with improved performance of the task after sleep.
Distinct modulatory effects of sleep on the maintenance of hippocampal and medial prefrontal cortex LTP
Results show that REMD impaired the maintenance of late‐phase LTP in the DG, whereas it enhanced it in the mPFC, suggesting that Sleep, therefore, could have distinct effects on the consolidation of different forms of memory.