The medial temporal lobe memory system

  title={The medial temporal lobe memory system},
  author={Lr. Squire and Stuart M. Zola-Morgan},
  pages={1380 - 1386}
Studies of human amnesia and studies of an animal model of human amnesia in the monkey have identified the anatomical components of the brain system for memory in the medial temporal lobe and have illuminated its function. This neural system consists of the hippocampus and adjacent, anatomically related cortex, including entorhinal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal cortices. These structures, presumably by virtue of their widespread and reciprocal connections with neocortex, are essential for… 
An animal model of recognition memory and medial temporal lobe amnesia: History and current issues
The medial temporal lobe: Memory and beyond
Current Topics Regarding the Function of the Medial Temporal Lobe Memory System.
  • R. Clark
  • Biology, Psychology
    Current topics in behavioral neurosciences
  • 2018
The development of an animal model of medial temporal lobe function is described and the insights that lead to the understanding that the brain contains multiple, anatomically discrete, memory systems are described.
Real-time tracking of memory formation in the human rhinal cortex and hippocampus.
It is suggested that declarative memory formation is dissociable into subprocesses and sequentially organized within the MTL, as well as within the rhinal cortex and the hippocampus.
Against memory systems.
  • D. Gaffan
  • Biology, Psychology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2002
The medial temporal lobe is indispensable for normal memory processing in both human and non-human primates, as is shown by the fact that large lesions in it produce a severe impairment in the
Research on this topic began in the 1950s with the study of the noted amnesic patient H.M. and culminated in studies of an animal model of human memory impairment in the nonhuman primate.
Functional differentiation within the medial temporal lobe in the rat
Lesions of the entorhinal cortex failed to affect consistently either memory process or type of information handled, but they did result in impairments in learning the complex spatial discrimination requiring reference memory and in working memory involving nonspatial information.
Damage limited to the hippocampal region produces long-lasting memory impairment in monkeys
These findings show that, first, the hippocampal region itself is essential for normal memory function; and second, the adjacent entorhinal and parahippocampal cortices, either alone or in combination, are also an essential component of the medial temporal lobe memory system.
The possible contribution of the amygdala to memory.
The processing of episodic memories is believed to depend on the proper functioning of so-called bottleneck structures through which information apparently must pass in order to be stored long term.


The neuroanatomy of amnesia. A critique of the hippocampal memory hypothesis.
  • J. A. Horel
  • Biology, Psychology
    Brain : a journal of neurology
  • 1978
The discovery that medial temporal lobe lesions produce amnesia in humans if the lesion extends sufficiently far posteriorly to include the hippocampus forms the keystone of the hippocampal memory hypothesis, which concludes that the animal model is a poor one.
The neuropsychology of human memory.
  • L. Squire
  • Psychology, Biology
    Annual review of neuroscience
  • 1982
In agreement with the neuropsychological findings, available anatomical data from patients with diencephalic or bitemporal amnesia suggest that these amnesias need not result from damage to a single
The neuroanatomy of amnesia: amygdala-hippocampus versus temporal stem.
The results indicate that the hippocampus, amygdala, or both, but not the temporal stem, are involved in memory in the monkey and suggest that a rapprochement between the findings for the human and the nonhuman primate may be close at hand.
A memory system in the monkey.
  • M. Mishkin
  • Biology, Psychology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1982
A neural model is presented, based largely on evidence from studies in monkeys, postulating that coded representation of stimuli are stored in the higher-order sensory (i.e. association) areas of the
Lesions of the hippocampal formation but not lesions of the fornix or the mammillary nuclei produce long-lasting memory impairment in monkeys
A group of tasks sensitive to human amnesia were used to characterize the severity and duration of memory impairment in monkeys following bilateral damage to the hippocampal formation, fornix, or
Independence of memory functions and emotional behavior: Separate contributions of the hippocampal formation and the amygdala
Findings show that memory impairment and abnormal emotional behavior are anatomically dissociable and independent effects of damage to the medial temporal lobe.
Hippocampus, space, and memory
It is proposed that the hippocampus is selectively involved in behaviors that require working memory, irrespective of the type of material (spatial or nonspatial) that is to be processed by that memory.
Hippocampal resections impair associative learning and recognition memory in the monkey
Though monkeys in the hippocampal group were impaired on both delays and lists, the impairment was more severe on the lists, with abnormal sensitivity to pro- and retroactive interference as a possible source of difficulty.
Lesions of perirhinal and parahippocampal cortex that spare the amygdala and hippocampal formation produce severe memory impairment
It is suggested that the severe memory impairment in monkeys and humans associated with bilateral medial temporal lesions results from damage to the hippocampal formation and adjacent, anatomically related cortex, not from conjoint hippocampus-amygdala damage.