The mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to resistance training.

  title={The mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to resistance training.},
  author={Brad Jon Schoenfeld},
  journal={Journal of strength and conditioning research},
  volume={24 10},
  • B. Schoenfeld
  • Published 1 October 2010
  • Education
  • Journal of strength and conditioning research
The quest to increase lean body mass is widely pursued by those who lift weights. Research is lacking, however, as to the best approach for maximizing exercise-induced muscle growth. Bodybuilders generally train with moderate loads and fairly short rest intervals that induce high amounts of metabolic stress. Powerlifters, on the other hand, routinely train with high-intensity loads and lengthy rest periods between sets. Although both groups are known to display impressive muscularity, it is not… 

Changes and Differences in Body Composition and Strength Abilities of Athletes in Fitness and Bodybuilding at Different Intervals of Rest

Efforts to increase muscle mass (hypertrophy) are required in sports that are dedicated to lifting or weightlifting. Bodybuilding methods with moderate load and relatively short rest between sets and

Maximizing Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review of Advanced Resistance Training Techniques and Methods

It is difficult to provide specific guidelines for volume, intensity of effort, and frequency of previously mentioned RT techniques and methods, however, well-trained athletes may integrate advanced RT Techniques and methods into their routines as an additional stimulus to break through plateaus and to prevent training monotony.

Acute and Chronic Testosterone Response to Blood Flow Restricted Exercise

It is suggested that systemic increases of endogenous testosterone are not necessary for muscular hypertrophy to occur, but definitive conclusions cannot be made without a more thorough analysis of responses of androgen receptor density following blood flow restricted exercise.

Resistance Training Recommendations to Maximize Muscle Hypertrophy in an Athletic Population: Position Stand of the IUSCA

Hypertrophy can be operationally defined as an increase in the axial cross-sectional area of a muscle fiber or whole muscle, and is due to increases in the size of pre-existing muscle fibers.

Eccentric Resistance Training and Muscle Hypertrophy

The aim of this brief review is to point out the benefits of eccentric training programs, highlighting its effects on muscle hypertrophy, and to indicate the difficulties that can rise when employing such a model.

Resistance training variables on muscle hypertrophy: a systematic review

The PEDro scale was used to analyse the quality of the selected articles and it was concluded that the variables intensity and volume must be carefully analysed in a training program.

Is There a Minimum Intensity Threshold for Resistance Training-Induced Hypertrophic Adaptations?

Current research indicates that low-load exercise can indeed promote increases in muscle growth in untrained subjects, and that these gains may be functionally, metabolically, and/or aesthetically meaningful, whether hypertrophic adaptations can equal that achieved with higher intensity resistance exercise.


Evidence supports that persons should train to the highest intensity of effort, thus recruiting as many motor units and muscle fibres as possible, self-selecting a load and repetition range, and performing single sets for each exercise, and evidence suggests that short periods of detraining in trained persons might stimulate greater hypertrophy upon return to training.

Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy, Maximal Strength, and Rate of Force Development: Effects of Resistance Training Loading Strategy

The purpose of the current study was to compare RISR to RM programs on measures of muscle fiber hypertrophy, maximal strength, and rate of force development (RFD) in well-trained lifters.



The application of training to failure in periodized multiple-set resistance exercise programs.

  • J. Willardson
  • Medicine
    Journal of strength and conditioning research
  • 2007
What is currently known concerning the application of training to failure is discussed and the goals of the lifter should guide the decision-making process on this issue are guided.

The Role of Resistance Exercise Intensity on Muscle Fibre Adaptations

  • A. Fry
  • Biology
    Sports medicine
  • 2004
Data suggest that maximal hypertrophy occurs with loads from 80–95% 1RM, and those typically utilising the heaviest loads, that is weightlifters and powerlifters, exhibited a preferentialhypertrophy of type II fibres when compared with body builders who appear to equally hypertropy both type I and type II Fibre.

Changes in muscle size and MHC composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity.

LL resistance training was sufficient to induce a small but significant muscle hypertrophy in healthy young men, however, LL resistanceTraining was inferior to HL training in evoking adaptive changes in muscle size and contractile strength and was insufficient to induce changes in MHC composition.

Acute and Chronic Response of Skeletal Muscle to Resistance Exercise

SummarySkeletal muscle tissue is sensitive to the acute and chronic stresses associated with resistance training. These responses are influenced by the structure of resistance activity (i.e.

Hypertrophy with unilateral resistance exercise occurs without increases in endogenous anabolic hormone concentration

In conclusion, unilateral training induced local muscle hypertrophy only in the exercised limb, which occurred in the absence of changes in systemic hormones that ostensibly play a role in musclehypertrophy.

Elevations in ostensibly anabolic hormones with resistance exercise enhance neither training-induced muscle hypertrophy nor strength of the elbow flexors.

It is concluded that exposure of loaded muscle to acute exercise-induced elevations in endogenous anabolic hormones enhances neither muscle hypertrophy nor strength with resistance training in young men.

American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults.

In order to stimulate further adaptation toward a specific training goal(s), progression in the type of resistance training protocol used is necessary and emphasis should be placed on multiple-joint exercises, especially those involving the total body.

Skeletal muscle adaptations consequent to long-term heavy resistance exercise.

  • P. Tesch
  • Biology
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise
  • 1988
It appears, though, that bodybuilders, relying on a high repetition training system, in contrast to Olympic weight- and power lifters, display a small increase in number of capillaries per fiber.

Rest Interval between Sets in Strength Training

The rest interval between sets is an important variable that should receive more attention in resistance exercise prescription and when prescribed appropriately with other important prescriptive variables can influence the efficiency, safety and ultimate effectiveness of a strength training programme.

Skeletal muscle adaptations during early phase of heavy-resistance training in men and women.

The data suggest that skeletal muscle adaptations that may contribute to strength gains of the lower extremity are similar for men and women during the early phase of resistance training and, with the exception of changes in the fast fiber type composition, that they occur gradually.