The mechanical properties of cellular solids

  title={The mechanical properties of cellular solids},
  author={M. F. Ashby and R. F. Mehl Medalist},
  journal={Metallurgical Transactions A},
The mechanical properties (elastic, plastic, creep, and fracture) of cellular solids or foams are related to the properties of the cell wall material and to the cell geometry. The properties are well described by simple formulae. Such materials occur widely in nature and have many potential engineering applications. 
Effect of pore combination on the mechanical properties of an open cell aluminum foam
The effect of secondary pores on the mechanical properties of an open cell aluminum foam was experimentally studied and simulated. It is found that introduction of smaller pores into the foamExpand
Modelling the mechanical behavior of cellular materials
Abstract Materials with a cellular structure are widespread; they include natural materials such as wood and cork as well as man-made honeycombs and foams. Their cellular structure gives rise toExpand
Stress and strain in liquid and solid foams
Both liquid and solid foams, together with analogous cellular materials, have distinctive mechanical or rheological properties which find many applications. This review concentrates on the search forExpand
Uniaxial tensile elastic properties of a regular stacking of brazed hollow spheres
Abstract The elastic properties of a FCC hollow sphere metal foam are investigated using FEM. Although its elastic behaviour is well described by a quadratic dependence in density, it cannot beExpand
Failure surfaces for cellular materials under multiaxial loads—I.Modelling
Abstract Materials with a cellular structure are increasingly used in engineering. Proper design requires an understanding of the response of the materials to stress; and, in real engineering design,Expand
Deformation and energy absorption diagrams for cellular solids
Abstract The mechanical properties of 3 types of cellular solids (flexible, plastic and brittle) have been measured as a function of density. The results are compared with models for the stiffness,Expand
The mechanical properties of extruded food foams
A pin indentation test has been used to obtain the local mechanical properties and porosity of extruded food foams. These local mechanical properties correlate better with the bulk foam density thanExpand
Energy absorption properties of cellular materials with maximum bulk modulus
Cellular materials possess excellent mechanical, physical and thermal properties compared to solid materials. They are widely used as an energy absorber in the form of packaging foams to protectExpand
Elastic modulus dependence on density for polymeric foams with systematically changing microstructures
Several series of foams were prepared by filling an open-cellular foam preform with varying amounts of polymer. The foams had systematically changing cellular structures and their compressive moduliExpand
Compressive Properties of Open Cell Aluminum Foams
The uniaxial compressive test results of several aluminum foams are compared with aluminum alloy and ppi (pore per inch) of open cell foam. The compressive stress-strain curve of aluminum alloy foamsExpand


The mechanics of three-dimensional cellular materials
  • I. J. Gibson, M. Ashby
  • Materials Science
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1982
The mechanical properties (the moduli and collapse strengths) of three dimensional cellular solids or foams are related to the properties of the cell wall, and to the cell geometry. The results ofExpand
The prediction of the tensile properties of flexible foams
An idealized model for flexible foam in tension is developed. The model includes large deformations and cell structure orientation before and after deformation. It is predicted that two quantitiesExpand
Estimation of mechanical properties for rigid polyurethane foams
Rigid plastic foams find application in construction mainly as core materials for loaded sandwich structures—in buildings, ground vehicles, and airplanes. This work provides an equation for theExpand
Mechanics of Foamed Elastic Materials
Abstract The deformation of a foamed elastic material, both in tension and compression, and its resistance to tearing and to tensile rupture, have recently been derived on the basis of a modelExpand
The mechanical properties of high‐density rigid polyurethane foams in compression: I. Modulus
A series of rigid polyurethane foams of densities varying from 65 kg/m−3 to 400 kg/m−3 have been tested in compression as a function of rate and temperature. It has been found that a linear relationExpand
The deformation of foamed elastic materials
A theoretical treatment is given which predicts the behavior of a foamed elastic material on the basis of a model consisting of a network of thin threads. Two cases are considered: (1) small strains,Expand
Mechanical properties of particulate‐filled polyurethane foams
The compressive behavior of a rigid polyurethane foam reflects its geometric structure and the physical properties of the matrix polymer. Foam properties may be modified by the inclusion of silicaExpand
Fracture properties of a rigid polyurethane foam over a range of densities
Abstract Single edge notch fracture tests have been carried out on rigid polyurethane foam in the density range 32 to 360 kg/m3. Fracture properties were characterized in terms of the fractureExpand
The plastic behavior of cellular materials
The plastic flow characteristics of cellular materials containing a large proportion of voids are discussed. A very low Poisson's ratio and a tendency toward orderly cellular collapse are identifiedExpand
The structure and mechanics of cork
The excellence of cork for stopping bottles, for thermal and sound insulation, and as a shock-absorbing material for flooring and packaging is due to the special shape, size and structure of itsExpand