Experimental application of ultrafast imaging to spectral tissue characterization.
Simple scattering media fit scattering model theories much better than more complex scattering media. Tissue is much more complex as an acoustic scattering media and to date there has not been an adequate scattering model that fits it well. Previous studies evaluated the scattering characteristics of simple media (grouping of cells at various number densities) and fit them to the concentric spheres scattering model theory. This study is to increase the complexity of the media to provide insight into the acoustic scattering characteristics of tissue, and specifically two tumor types. Complementing the data from the tumors is 100% volume fraction cell pellets of the same cell lines. Cell pellets and ex vivo tumors are scanned using high-frequency single-element transducers (9-105 MHz), and the attenuation and backscatter coefficient (BSC) are estimated. BSC comparisons are made between cell pellets and tumors. The results show that the 4T1 (ATCC #CRL-2539) cell pellets and tumors have similar BSC characteristics, whereas the MAT (ATCC #CRL-1666) cell pellets and tumors have significantly different BSC characteristics. Factors that yield such differences are explored. Also, the fluid-filled sphere and the concentric spheres models are evaluated against the BSC characteristics, demonstrating that further work is required.