This factor analysis study was conducted to determine the components of health in new mothers. The 286 participants included three groups of married women: 63 first-time biological mothers, 104 first-time adoptive mothers, and 119 controls (women without children). Results for the entire participant group showed four health status factors--mental health, use of health services, work readiness, and activity--and these four factors yielded a cumulative variance of 62.8%. While three of the factors--mental health, use of health services, and work readiness--were represented in the factor structures of each of the three groups, there were noteworthy differences in the constituents of factors between groups. The current change in roles and responsibilities of new mothers calls for a careful look at the health of this group of women; the health factors identified in this study may provide useful tools for further research involving these important members of our society.