The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932 to 1978.

  title={The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932 to 1978.},
  author={James Robert Flynn},
  journal={Psychological Bulletin},
  • J. Flynn
  • Published 1984
  • Psychology
  • Psychological Bulletin
This study shows that every Stanford-Binet and Wechsler standardization sample from 1932 to 1978 established norms of a higher standard than its predecessor. The obvious interpretation of this pattern is that representative samples of Americans did better and better on IQ tests over a period of 46 years, the total gain amounting to a rise in mean IQ of 13.8 points. The implications of this finding are developed: The combination of IQ gains and the decline in Scholastic Aptitude Test scores… 
IQ and Achievement: 1930s to 1980s.
One hundred thirty-eight fifth-grade students from three upstate New York school districts were administered a 1930s version of the Pintner General Ability Tests: Verbal Series. Scores from this test
"Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure": Correction to Flynn.
Data from 14 nations reveal IQ gains ranging from 5 to 25 points in a single generation. Some of the largest gains occur on culturally reduced tests and tests of fluid intelligence. The Norwegian
American IQ Gains From 1932 to 2002: The WISC Subtests and Educational Progress
Recent data from 12 pairs of tests representing eight standardization samples show that American IQ gains have occurred at a rate of 0.308 points per year from 1972 to 2002. Linked with earlier IQ
WAIS–III and WISC–III IQ Gains in the United States from 1972 to 1995: How to Compensate for Obsolete Norms
Flynn used data covering 1932 to 1972 to put U.S. gains at about 0.300 IQ points per year. For post-1972, comparison of WISC–R versus WISC–III, particularly the data of Zimmerman and Woo-Sam, gives a
What Is Intelligence?: Beyond the Flynn Effect
Around their 18th birthday, basically all Dutch males born between 1934 and 1964 unknowingly took part in a study of the malleability of intelligence. When these young men appeared before the Dutch
Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure.
Data from 14 nations reveal IQ gains ranging from 5 to 25 points in a single generation. Some of the largest gains occur on culturally reduced tests and tests of fluid intelligence. The Norwegian
Expanding variance and the case of historical changes in IQ means: a critique of Dickens and Flynn (2001).
The historical rise in IQ mean level has not been accompanied by substantial variance changes, a finding inconsistent with the properties of Flynn's (2001) new approach to IQ growth.
Expanding Variance and the Case of Historical Changes in IQ Means: A Critique of Dickens and Flynn (2001)
The Flynn effect is the rise in mean IQ scores during the 20th century, amounting to about 0.33 IQ points per year. Many theoretical explanations have been proposed, though none are universally
Rising IQ scores in British children: recent evidence.
Between 1987 and 1990 IQ scores for 333 5-year-old white school children were obtained using the Wechsler Pre-School and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) and the results indicate that the rate of increase of IQ scores was comparable and probably higher than that reported in the U.S.A. for the period 1932-78.


THE HIGHLY verbal nature of the Stan ford-Binet Intelligence Scale has long b^en con sidered a drawback in the psychological testing of certain children. The examiner in public schools must
Comparability of WISC and WISC-R Scores for 30 8- and 9-Year-Old Institutionalized Caucasian Children
This study compared WISC and WISC-R scores of an atypical group of 30 third and fourth grade school children who were in a private child care institution in south central Alabama.
The Comparative Validity of the Wais and the Stanford-Binet with College Freshmen
ON the basis of a study which he conducted before releasing the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) , Wechsler (1955) raised a question as to the possible lower validity of the Stanford-Binet
I.Q. Scores and the Problem of Classification
The results suggested that a W.A.I.S.Q. of 80 was a more realistic cut-off point for sub normality if the tests scores were to bear a closer relationship to medical and legal diagnoses of subnormality.
Mr. Binet’s Test 70 Years Later1
intelligence test. And so, we may define 1975 as the 70th anniversary of that event-an event that, as much as any in the early years of this century, determined the shape and course of subsequent
Comparison of WISC and WISC-R Using a Sample of Highly Intelligent Children
A sample of 19 male and 19 female 5th graders from a private school were tested on the 1949 WISC and the 1974 revised edition (WISC-R). Tests were administered in a partially counterbalanced order.
Relations of Scores on WPPSI and WISC-R at a One-Year Interval
This study was designed to provide information regarding the relationship between the WPPSI and the WISC-R, over a 1-yr. interval, for a sample of middle-class children of above average intelligence.
Soldier intelligence in World Wars I and II.
The data presented in this study offer no proof, but are inclined to interpret them as indicating that the present population is superior in mental test performance to the population of a generation ago, and that a large proportion of this superiority is a consequence of more and better education for more people.
Social Class and Test Performance: Comparative Validity of the Peabody with the WISC and WISC-R for Two Socioeconomic Groups
Comparability of IQs yielded by the Peabody and the revised Wechsler scale, the WISC-R, is important to interpret IQ estimates obtained from these two scales. In the present study, 40 normal