The mass of the photon

  title={The mass of the photon},
  author={Liang-Cheng Tu and Jun Luo and George T. Gillies},
  journal={Reports on Progress in Physics},
  pages={77 - 130}
Because classical Maxwellian electromagnetism has been one of the cornerstones of physics during the past century, experimental tests of its foundations are always of considerable interest. Within that context, one of the most important efforts of this type has historically been the search for a rest mass of the photon. The effects of a nonzero photon rest mass can be incorporated into electromagnetism straightforwardly through the Proca equations, which are the simplest relativistic… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

On the massive nature of photon
The idea drawn from Einstein's special Theory of Relativity, reveals that photons are mass less particles and that, every particle travelling at the speed of light must accordingly be mass less. This
A survey of existing and proposed classical and quantum approaches to the photon mass
Abstract. Over the past twenty years, there have been several careful experimental, observational and phenomenological investigations aimed at searching for and establishing ever tighter bounds on
Electromagnetic momentum in frontiers of modern physics
We review the role of the momentum of the electromagnetic (EM) fields Pe in several areas of modern physics. Pe represents the EM interaction in equations for matter and light waves propagation. As
Upper bounds on the photon mass
The effects of a nonzero photon rest mass can be incorporated into electromagnetism in a simple way using the Proca equations. In this vein, two interesting implications regarding the possible
Photon and graviton mass limits
Efforts to place limits on deviations from canonical formulations of electromagnetism and gravity have probed length scales increasing dramatically over time. Historically, these studies have passed
special theory of relativity for photons
The photon mass is ordinarily assumed to be exactly zero. However, this is merely a theoretical assumption; there is no experimental evidence to indicate that the photon mass is identically zero. In
Atomic Spectroscopy and the Photon Mass: Effects on the hydrogen ground-state
The photon is the particle that mediates the electromagnetic interaction. This particle appears as a result of the quantization of Maxwell’s theory with the peculiarity that has no mass [12].
Electric and Magnetic Fields Due to Massive Photons and Their Consequences
Allowing photons to bear mass, the electric and magnetic flelds of a steadily moving charge are no longer perpendicular to each other, as anticipated from Biot-Savart law. The electric and magnetic
Infrared Lorentz violation and slowly instantaneous electricity.
We study a modification of electromagnetism which violates Lorentz invariance at large distances. In this theory, electromagnetic waves are massive, but the static force between charged particles is
Massive Photon and Dark Energy
We investigate cosmology of massive electrodynamics and explore the possibility whether massive photon could provide an explanation of the dark energy. The action is given by the scalar-vector-tensor


The Casimir effect with finite-mass photons
Astrophysical upper limits on the photon rest mass
The main ideas and methods currently used to obtain upper limits on the photon rest mass from astrophysical data are briefly reviewed. One method is based on the fact that if the photon has nonzero
Massive electrodynamics and the magnetic monopoles.
  • Ignatiev, Joshi
  • Physics
    Physical review. D, Particles and fields
  • 1996
Under rather general assumptions it is proved that the construction of such an algebra is not possible and therefore the quantization condition cannot be derived and this points to the conclusion that the Dirac monopole and the finite photon mass cannot coexist within one and the same theory.
Experimental tests of Coulomb's Law and the photon rest mass
Coulomb's Law is a fundamental principle describing the electric force between isolated charges, and represents the first quantitative law achieved in electromagnetism. The degree of confidence with
Quantised Singularities in the Electromagnetic Field
The steady progress of physics requires for its theoretical formulation a mathematics that gets continually more advanced. This is only natural and to be expected. What, however, was not expected by
Limits on new forces coexisting with electromagnetism.
This work generalizes that of Bartlett and Loegl (who considered the case of a massive vector field coexisting with massless electrodynamics) to encompass a broad class of phenomenological interactions mediated by both scalar and vector exchanges.
Progress in our knowledge of the fundamental constants of physics
The measurements of quantities providing information on the values of the fundamental physical constants bring together a wide variety of measurements in very different parts of physics in a unique
Historical roots of gauge invariance
Gauge invariance is the basis of the modern theory of electroweak and strong interactions (the so called Standard Model). The roots of gauge invariance go back to the year 1820 when electromagnetism
Space - time approach to quantum electrodynamics
In this paper two things are done. (1) It is shown that a considerable simplification can be attained in writing down matrix elements for complex processes in electrodynamics. Further, a physical
The Theory of magnetic poles
If one supposes that a particle with a single magnetic pole can exist and that it interacts with charged particles, the laws of quantum mechanics lead to the requirement that the electric charges