The manipulation of neural and cellular activities by ectopic expression of melanopsin

  title={The manipulation of neural and cellular activities by ectopic expression of melanopsin},
  author={Amane Koizumi and Kenji F. Tanaka and Akihiro Yamanaka},
  journal={Neuroscience Research},

The distribution of melanopsin (OPN4) protein in the human brain

The wide distribution of OPN4 in central areas of the humanbrain evokes a question whether ambient light has important straight targets in the human brain outside the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT).

Overexpression of melanopsin in the retina restores visual function in Royal College of Surgeons rats.

It was showed that during retinal degeneration, the expression of melanopsin was significantly decreased, while vector-mediated overexpression of melanOPSin delayed the loss of visual function in rats.

Proceedings of the First International Optogenetic Therapies for Vision Symposium.

There is a lot of interest in optogenetics as a pan-disease clinical treatment for end-stage application in the inherited degenerative diseases of the retina, but research to date has been limited to nonhuman clinical studies.

Human melanopsin-AAV2/8 transfection to retina transiently restores visual function in rd1 mice.

Ectopic expression of human melanopsin effectively and safely restores visual function in rd1 mice and restoration of vision disappeared 45d after human melanopin injection.

Optogenetics in Developmental Biology: using light to control ion flux-dependent signals in Xenopus embryos.

Evidence is yielded that the direction of ion flux via common optogenetic reagents may be reversed, or unpredictable in non-neural cells, when used in combination with rigorous controls, and optogenetics can be a powerful tool for investigating ion-flux based signaling inNon-excitable systems.

Principles of Optogenetic Methods and Their Application to Cardiac Experimental Systems

Use of optogenetics has expanded in cardiac physiology, mainly using optically controlled depolarizing ion channels to control heart rate and for optogenetic defibrillation.

A live cell assay of GPCR coupling allows identification of optogenetic tools for controlling Go and Gi signaling

The GsX assay is presented, a set of tools based on chimeric Gs subunits that transduce coupling of opsins to diverse G proteins into increases in cAMP levels, measured with a real-time reporter in living cells to compare coupling to Gi/o/t across a panel of natural and chimeric opsins selected for potential application in gene therapy for retinal degeneration.

Prospects of Optogenetic Prosthesis of the Degenerative Retina of the Eye

The review discusses the prospects of using rhodopsin as an optogenetic tool for prosthetics of degenerative (blind) eye retina and the principles of optogenetic techniques. Retinal-containing



Illumination of the Melanopsin Signaling Pathway

It is found that expression of melanopsin in Xenopus oocytes results in light-dependent activation of membrane currents through the Gαq/Gα11 G protein pathway, with an action spectrum closely matching that of melanpsin-expressing ipRGCs and of behavioral responses to light in mice lacking rods and cones.

Induction of photosensitivity by heterologous expression of melanopsin

It is concluded that mammalian melanopsin is a functional sensory photopigment, that it is the photopigsment of ganglion-cell photoreceptors, and that these photoreCEPTors may use an invertebrate-like phototransduction cascade.

Restoration of visual function in retinal degeneration mice by ectopic expression of melanopsin

In a mouse model (rd/rd) of photoreceptor degeneration, a viral vector is used to express in a large number of retinal ganglion cells the light sensitive protein melanopsin, normally present in only a specialized subset of the cells, providing an enhancement of visual function in rd/rd mice.

Melanopsin-Containing Retinal Ganglion Cells: Architecture, Projections, and Intrinsic Photosensitivity

It is shown that melanopsin is present in cell bodies, dendrites, and proximal axonal segments of a subset of rat RGCs, most likely the visual pigment of phototransducing R GCs that set the circadian clock and initiate other non–image-forming visual functions.

Light-Evoked Calcium Responses of Isolated Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells

Results indicate that Ca2+ influx through VGCCs, activated after action potential firing, was the primary source for light-evoked elevations in ipRGC [Ca2+]i.

Melanopsin and Mechanisms of Non-visual Ocular Photoreception*

In addition to rods and cones, the mammalian eye contains a third class of photoreceptor, the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell (ipRGC). ipRGCs are heterogeneous irradiance-encoding

Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells

Fundamental parameters governing intrinsic light responses and associated spike generation of retinal ganglion cells are reported, finding that a flash causing a few hundred isomerized melanopsin molecules in a retina is sufficient for reaching threshold for the pupillary light reflex.

Diminished Pupillary Light Reflex at High Irradiances in Melanopsin-Knockout Mice

It is reported that in mice with the melanopsin gene ablated, RGCs retrograde-labeled from the suprachiasmatic nuclei were no longer intrinsically photosensitive, although their number, morphology, and projections were unchanged.

The emerging roles of melanopsin in behavioral adaptation to light.