The malleability of spatial skills: a meta-analysis of training studies.

  title={The malleability of spatial skills: a meta-analysis of training studies.},
  author={David H. Uttal and Nathaniel Meadow and Elizabeth Tipton and Linda Liu Hand and Alison R Alden and Christopher Warren and Nora S. Newcombe},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  volume={139 2},
Having good spatial skills strongly predicts achievement and attainment in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields (e.g., Shea, Lubinski, & Benbow, 2001; Wai, Lubinski, & Benbow, 2009). Improving spatial skills is therefore of both theoretical and practical importance. To determine whether and to what extent training and experience can improve these skills, we meta-analyzed 217 research studies investigating the magnitude, moderators, durability, and generalizability of… CONTINUE READING
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