The maintenance need for water in parenteral fluid therapy

  title={The maintenance need for water in parenteral fluid therapy},
  author={Malcolm A. Holliday and William E. Segar},
  journal={Pediatric Anesthesia},
It is generally agreed that the maintenance requirements for water of individuals is determined by their caloric expenditure. By means of the following formulae, the caloric expenditure of hospitalized patients can be determined from weight alone. For weights ranging from 0 to 10 kg, the caloric expenditure is 100 cal/kg/day; from 10 to 20 kg the caloric expenditure is 1000 cal plus 50 cal/kg for each kilogram of body weight more than 10; over 20 kg the caloric expenditure is 1500 cal plus 20… 

Not enough salt in maintenance fluids!

  • C. Powell
  • Medicine
    Archives of Disease in Childhood
  • 2015
This paper was based initially on well, breastfed infants, and the authors did recommend caution where specific clinical situations dictate alterations, but since the 1950s, those specific Clinical situations have become clearer.

Lack of scientific validity of body surface as basis for parenteral fluid dosage.

A simple rule of thumb based on weight alone is here shown to be sufficiently accurate, especially since temporary adjustments are dictated by clinical judgment in correcting such conditions as initial dehydration.

Maintenance Intravenous Fluids (MIV)

Maintenance intravenous fluid requirements for hospitalized patients are often estimated by standard rules when clinical assessment of the patient reveals a normal volume status. For instance, in

The Maintenance Need for Water in Parenteral Fluid Therapy

Current textbooks and the latest editions of commonly used house officer manuals use this method of determining maintenance water needs based on calorie expenditure for estimating insensible and urinary water losses of children and adults of any size or age.

Indirect calorimetry reveals that better monitoring of nutrition therapy in pediatric intensive care is needed.

The high percentage of children aged 0-14 years who were overfed emphasizes the need to measure energy needs by using indirect calorimetry.

Parenteral fluid administration.

Recently the rationale of the entire "surface area concept" has been questioned by Wilson and his associates, and the inadequacy of the data upon which the surface area "nomograms" are based is pointed out.

Appropriate Fluid for Intravenous Maintenance Therapy in Hospitalized Children-Current Status

Intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is used in three different scenarios: first, to restore the contracted extracellular fluid (ECF) volume; second, to replace the ongoing fluid losses, and third, to

Intravenous fluid therapy in paediatrics.

  • G. H. Bush
  • Medicine
    Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • 1971
It is clear that inadequate knowledge of fluid therapy was an important cause contributing to the mortality in children with acute appendicitis, and the main reason for this lack of understanding would seem to be Inadequate interpretation of signs of dehydration.

Maintenance Intravenous Fluids in Children – The Verdict was Already Out?

Based on the results of this study, it would be imprudent to conclude that N/2 saline does not cause hyponatremia as the observed rate of hypo or hypernatremia is 6.7–8% whereas, the rate presumed for sample size calculation was 35%, almost 5 times that of actual incidence.