The low viral production in trophoblastic cells is due to a high endocytic internalization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and can be overcome by the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1.

@article{Vidricaire2003TheLV,
  title={The low viral production in trophoblastic cells is due to a high endocytic internalization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and can be overcome by the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1.},
  author={Ga{\"e}l Vidricaire and M{\'e}lanie R. Tardif and Michel J Tremblay},
  journal={The Journal of biological chemistry},
  year={2003},
  volume={278 18},
  pages={
          15832-41
        }
}
Maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is the primary cause of this retrovirus infection in neonates. Trophoblasts have been proposed to play a critical role in modulating virus spread to the fetus. This paper addresses the mechanism of HIV-1 biology in trophoblastic cells. The trophoblastic cell lines BeWo, JAR, and JEG-3 were infected with reporter HIV-1 particles pseudotyped with envelope glycoproteins from the vesicular stomatitis virus or various… CONTINUE READING
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