The loss of ions from Venus through the plasma wake

@article{Barabash2007TheLO,
title={The loss of ions from Venus through the plasma wake},
author={S. Barabash and A. Fedorov and J. Sauvaud and R. Lundin and C. Russell and Y. Futaana and T. Zhang and H. Andersson and K. Brinkfeldt and A. Grigoriev and M. Holmstr{\"o}m and M. Yamauchi and K. Asamura and W. Baumjohann and H. Lammer and A. Coates and D. Kataria and D. L. Linder and C. Curtis and K. C. Hsieh and B. Sandel and M. Grande and H. Gunell and H. Koskinen and E. Kallio and P. Riihel{\"a} and T. S{\"a}les and W. Schmidt and J. Kozyra and N. Krupp and M. Fraenz and J. Woch and J. Luhmann and S. McKenna-Lawlor and C. Mazelle and J. Thocaven and S. Orsini and R. Cerulli-Irelli and M. Mura and M. Milillo and M. Maggi and E. Roelof and P. Brandt and K. Szegő and J. Winningham and R. Frahm and J. Scherrer and J. R. Sharber and P. Wurz and P. Bochsler},
journal={Nature},
year={2007},
volume={450},
pages={650-653}
}

Venus, unlike Earth, is an extremely dry planet although both began with similar masses, distances from the Sun, and presumably water inventories. The high deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio in the venusian atmosphere relative to Earth’s also indicates that the atmosphere has undergone significantly different evolution over the age of the Solar System. Present-day thermal escape is low for all atmospheric species. However, hydrogen can escape by means of collisions with hot atoms from ionospheric… CONTINUE READING