The loss of ions from Venus through the plasma wake

@article{Barabash2007TheLO,
  title={The loss of ions from Venus through the plasma wake},
  author={Stas Barabash and Andr{\'e}i Fedorov and J. Sauvaud and Rickard N. Lundin and Christopher T. Russell and Yoshifumi Futaana and T. L. Zhang and H. Andersson and Klas Brinkfeldt and Alexander Grigoriev and Mats Holmstr{\"o}m and Masatoshi Yamauchi and Kazushi Asamura and Wolfgang Baumjohann and Helmut Lammer and Andrew J. Coates and D. O. Kataria and D. R. Linder and Charles C. Curtis and Ke Chiang Hsieh and B. R. Sandel and Manuel Grande and Herbert Gunell and Hannu E. J. Koskinen and Esa Kallio and P{\"a}ivi Riihel{\"a} and T. S{\"a}les and Walter Schmidt and Janet Kozyra and Norbert Krupp and Markus Fr{\"a}nz and Joachim Woch and Janet G. Luhmann and Susan M. P. McKenna-Lawlor and Christian Xavier Mazelle and J. J. Thocaven and S. Orsini and R. Cerulli-Irelli and M. Mura and Michael T Milillo and Mario Maggi and Edmond C. Roelof and P C Brandt and Karoly Szego and John David Winningham and Rudy A. Frahm and J. R. Scherrer and James R. Sharber and Peter Wurz and Peter A. Bochsler},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2007},
  volume={450},
  pages={650-653}
}
Venus, unlike Earth, is an extremely dry planet although both began with similar masses, distances from the Sun, and presumably water inventories. The high deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio in the venusian atmosphere relative to Earth’s also indicates that the atmosphere has undergone significantly different evolution over the age of the Solar System. Present-day thermal escape is low for all atmospheric species. However, hydrogen can escape by means of collisions with hot atoms from ionospheric… 

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