The long-tongued Cretaceous scorpionfly Parapolycentropus Grimaldi and Rasnitsyn (Mecoptera: Pseudopolycentropodidae): New Data and Interpretations

  title={The long-tongued Cretaceous scorpionfly Parapolycentropus Grimaldi and Rasnitsyn (Mecoptera: Pseudopolycentropodidae): New Data and Interpretations},
  author={David A. Grimaldi and M. Andrew Johnston},
ABSTRACT The genus Parapolycentropus, originally described for two species in 99 myo Burmese amber, is unique among Mecoptera for its long, thin proboscis and possession of just the mesothoracic pair of wings. A new series of 19 specimens with excellent preservation allows description and redescription of virtually all morphological details. Male terminalia are very similar to those of the Holarctic Recent family of “snow fleas,” the Boreidae. Thoracic sclerites are highly convergent with… 
Mouthpart homologies and life habits of Mesozoic long-proboscid scorpionflies
The results suggest that the long-proboscid condition has most likely evolved once in Mesopsychoidea, independently from fleas, and further reveal the variety and complexity of mid-Cretaceous pollinating insects.
Bizzare wingless parasitic wasp from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Hymenoptera, Ceraphronoidea, Aptenoperissidae fam. nov.)
A strange wingless female parasitic wasp from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber described as Aptenoperissus burmanicus sp.
Enormously long, siphonate mouthparts of a new, oldest known spongillafly (Neuroptera, Sisyridae) from Burmese amber imply nectarivory or hematophagy
Paradoxosisyra groehni is described from Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber as the oldest known sisyrid, and is assigned to the new subfamily Paradoxosisyrinae, which is characterized by enormously long siphonate mouthparts.
Revision of the long-proboscid scorpionflies, Lichnomesopsyche Ren, Labandeira, and Shih, 2010
Abstract. The Mesozoic mecopteran family Mesopsychidae has attracted extensive attention by their long proboscis that is presumably associated with pollination of early gymnosperms. Three previously
Life habits and evolutionary biology of new two-winged long-proboscid scorpionflies from mid-Cretaceous Myanmar amber
A new family of long-proboscid scorpionflies is established from Myanmar amber, elucidate evolutionary mechanisms of hind-wing reduction, and detail feeding and reproductive habits of these insects.
The first hangingfly from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Mecoptera: Bittacidae)
The Bittacidae (hangingflies) were abundant and widespread during the Mesozoic, but much of their diversity falls within the Jurassic whereas in the Cretaceous they are less common. A new bittacid,
Nature's failed experiment: Long-proboscid Neuroptera (Sisyridae: Paradoxosisyrinae) from Upper Cretaceous amber of northern Myanmar
There is considerable diversity in the morphology of mouthparts, wing venation and wing patterns of Paradoxosisyrinae, and possible reasons for evolutionary failure of long-proboscid Neuroptera are discussed.
A thorny, ‘anareolate’ stick-insect (Phasmatidae s.l.) in Upper Cretaceous amber from Myanmar, with remarks on diversification times among Phasmatodea
Abstract A new fossil stick-insect (Phasmatodea) is described and figured from a male preserved in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar. Echinosomiscus primoticus Engel and Wang, gen. et sp. nov., is a
Direct evidence for eudicot pollen-feeding in a Cretaceous stinging wasp (Angiospermae; Hymenoptera, Aculeata) preserved in Burmese amber
Direct evidence preserved in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber for feeding on pollen in the eudicot genus Tricolporoidites by a basal new aculeate wasp supports the hypothesis that relatively small, generalized insect anthophiles were important pollinators of early angiosperms.
A catalogue of Burmite inclusions
Until the end of 2016, 14 phyla, 21 classes, 65 orders, 279 families, 515 genera and 643 species of organisms are recorded, which are summized and complied in this catalogue.


Revision of the bizarre Mesozoic scorpionflies in the Pseudopolycentropodidae (Mecopteroidea)
Complete preservation in amber of morphological details, particularly the female terminalia, confirms previous views that this unusual group of Pseudopolycentropodidae is phylogenetically basal to Recent Mecoptera.
New Mesozoic Mesopsychidae (Mecoptera) from Northeastern China
This finding documents the first formal record of fossil Mesopsychidae in China and indicates that they were feeding on externally exposed, nutrient-rich fluids of gymnospermous ovulate fructifications, and incapable of piercing surface epidermis.
The thoracic morphology of Nannochorista (Nannochoristidae) and its implications for the phylogeny of Mecoptera and Antliophora
The phylogenetic reconstruction using thoracic features alone is clearly impeded by far reaching modifications in Diptera in correlation with an advanced type of anteromotorism, and complex suites of reductional features in the secondary wingless forms.
A longstanding entomological problem finally solved? Head morphology of Nannochorista (Mecoptera, Insecta) and possible phylogenetic implications
The structure of the mouthparts indicates that adults of Nannochorista feed on fluids, and the loss of the mandibular muscles and the precerebral pharyngeal dilators are presumptive autapomorphies of the genus.
Die genital- und postgenitalsegmente der mecoptera-weibchen (insects, holometabola) I. Das exoskelet
  • G. Mickoleit
  • Biology
    Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere
  • 2004
It seems probable, especially for the Central European species of Panorpa, that the fused cerci and the 11th segment provide a probe with which the female tests crevices in the substrate on which the eggs are to be layed.
The head of Merope tuber (Meropeidae) and the phylogeny of Mecoptera (Hexapoda).
The parsimony analysis and a recent evaluation of thoracic features suggest a basal placement of Merope within monophyletic Pistillifera, and the placement of Nannochoristidae and the implied mecopteran paraphyly as a possible artefact is considered.
Strepsipteran forewings are haltere-like organs of equilibrium
It is shown for the first time conclusively that the specialized forewings in male Strepsiptera play the same role as halteres in flies, similar to vestibular organs of vertebrates, crabs, and cephalopods.
A Review of Our Knowledge of California Mecoptera
Mecoptera, or scorpion-flies, hanging-flies, and earwig-flies, are among the oldest holometabolous insects with fossils dating back to the early Permian, 250 million years ago. By the late Permian
The genitalia of male Diptera and Mecoptera compared with those of related insects, from the standpoint of phylogeny
The fundamental plan of the genitalia of male insects in general is used as the basis of the following discussion, and the modifications of this fundamental plan are traced through the Hymenop tera and Mecoptera to the dipteran types, giving consideration to the conditions met with in certain Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, TrichopterA, etc., when the condition exhibited by these forms has a bearing upon the interpretation of the parts in the Diptera.
Fossiliferous Cretaceous Amber from Myanmar (Burma): Its Rediscovery, Biotic Diversity, and Paleontological Significance
The stratigraphic distribution of exclusively Mesozoic arthropods in Burmese amber is reviewed, which indicates a probable Turonian-Cenomanian age of this material.