The long-term circulation driven by density currents in a two-layer stratified basin

  title={The long-term circulation driven by density currents in a two-layer stratified basin},
  author={Mathew G. Wells and John S. Wettlaufer},
  journal={Journal of Fluid Mechanics},
  pages={37 - 58}
Experimentation and theory are used to study the long-term dynamics of a two-dimensional density current flowing into a two-layer stratified basin. When the initial Richardson number, $\hbox{\it Ri}_{\rho}^{\hbox{\scriptsize\it in}}$, characterizing the ratio of the background stratification to the buoyancy flux of the density current, is less than the critical value of $\hbox{\it Ri}_{\rho}^{*} \,{=}\, 21-27$, it is found that the density current penetrates the stratified interface. This… 

Convection from a line-source into a two-layer stratified ambient fluid

We experimentally investigate the behaviour of a line-source plume falling through a finite two-layer stratified ambient where the depth of the upper ambient layer increases in time. Laboratory

Numerical investigation of split flows by gravity currents into two‐layered stratified water bodies

The behavior of a two-dimensional (2-D) gravity current impinging upon a density step in a two-layered stratified basin is analyzed using a high-resolution Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes model. The

Interaction between an inclined gravity current and a pycnocline in a two-layer stratification

A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of a dense gravity current flowing down an inclined slope into a quiescent two-layer stratification. The presence

The Intrusion Depth of Density Currents Flowing into Stratified Water Bodies

Abstract Theory and laboratory experiments are presented describing the depth at which a density current intrudes into a linearly stratified water column, as a function of the entrainment ratio E,

Steady turbulent density currents on a slope in a rotating fluid

Abstract We consider the dynamics of actively entraining turbulent density currents on a conical sloping surface in a rotating fluid. A theoretical plume model is developed to describe both

Experimental observations of the splitting of a gravity current at a density step in a stratified water body

When a gravity current reaches the level of neutral buoyancy in a stratified water body it can separate from the sloping boundary as an intrusion. If there is a density gradient within the gravity

Mixing and circulation at the confluence of two rivers entering a meandering reservoir

A field data set collected under different conditions is analyzed to characterize the spatial arrangement of two large inflows (Ebro and Segre) with distinct physical‐chemical characteristics as they

Pathways of river water to the surface layers of stratified reservoirs

This study uses tracer experiments to characterize the fate of a cold plunging river into a Mediterranean reservoir under different stratification conditions. Three tracer experiments in Lake Béznar,

Gravity Current Interaction with Interfaces

AbstractGravity currents that impact interfaces have a number of features that differ from gravity currents in homogeneous or continuously stratified ambient fluid. The interface can cause sharp



Turbulent buoyant convection from a source in a confined region

  • P. Manins
  • Physics
    Journal of Fluid Mechanics
  • 1979
An extension of the model first proposed by Baines & Turner (1969) is derived with careful attention to the conditions required for its application. The most important of these are that the Prandtl

Two-dimensional density currents in a confined basin

We present new experimental results on the mechanisms through which steady two-dimensional density currents lead to the formation of a stratification in a closed basin. A motivation for this work is

Mixing regimes for the flow of dense fluid down slopes into stratified environments

  • P. Baines
  • Physics, Environmental Science
    Journal of Fluid Mechanics
  • 2005
Downslope flows into density-stratified environments have been observed to have the character of detraining gravity currents on small slopes, and of entraining plumes on steep slopes. In this paper,

Penetrative turbulent convection into a rotating two-layer fluid

Turbulent convection into stratified two-layer fluid systems in the presence of rotation has been investigated in a cylindrical laboratory tank. For a wide range of conditions the vertical stability

A One-Dimensional Time-Dependent Model for the Vertical Stratification of the Upper Arctic Ocean

Abstract A one-dimensional time-dependent model of the upper Arctic Ocean is presented. It describes the circulation above a dynamically passive reservoir of Atlantic water. The model is driven by

Mixing in flows down gentle slopes into stratified environments

  • P. Baines
  • Environmental Science, Physics
    Journal of Fluid Mechanics
  • 2001
Observations of the flow of dense fluid into uniformly density-stratified environments down plane slopes with small inclination to the horizontal ([les ] 20°) are described, and a quantitative model

Turbulent buoyant convection from a source in a confined two-layered region

We consider the time evolution of a layer of fresh water placed on top of a layer of salt water in a laboratory tank when denser salt water is supplied to a nozzle at the free surface. The inflow is

A numerical study of dense water formation and transport on a shallow, sloping continental shelf

The circulation and transport of dense water generated by an idealized coastal polynya is studied using a three-dimensional primitive equation model. Starting with a homogeneous, quiescent ocean, a