The long engagement of the emperor penguin

@article{Ancel2013TheLE,
  title={The long engagement of the emperor penguin},
  author={Andr{\'e} Ancel and Caroline Gilbert and Micha{\"e}l Beaulieu},
  journal={Polar Biology},
  year={2013},
  volume={36},
  pages={573-577}
}
In birds, courtship is generally short relative to the whole breeding cycle. Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), however, are an exception as their courtship period is much longer (ca. 6 weeks) than the courtship of other penguin species. This strategy may appear surprising, as it is especially costly to fast and endure drastic climatic conditions for long periods at the colony (1.5 and up to 4 months for females and males, respectively). We examined here the reasons of this extended… 
The different breeding strategies of penguins: a review.
ncise review / Le point sur e different breeding strategies of penguins : A review vue des différentes stratégies de reproduction des manchots
TLDR
The breeding cycle of all the penguin species is described and compared, highlighting the characteristics of each species in terms of breeding range, population status, threats induced by environmental changes, duration of the different phases of the breeding cycle, mate fidelity, body mass, body height, egg mass and duration of egg formation.
Evolution and function of multimodal courtship displays
TLDR
What is currently known about the functional significance of courtship displays is reviewed, particularly about the role of multimodality in the courtship communication context, to place emphasis on those cases where a complete picture of the communication system can only be assessed by taking complexity and interaction between different modalities into account.

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