The levels of analysis revisited.

@article{MacDougallShackleton2011TheLO,
  title={The levels of analysis revisited.},
  author={Scott A. MacDougall-Shackleton},
  journal={Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences},
  year={2011},
  volume={366 1574},
  pages={2076-85}
}
The term levels of analysis has been used in several ways: to distinguish between ultimate and proximate levels, to categorize different kinds of research questions and to differentiate levels of reductionism. Because questions regarding ultimate function and proximate mechanisms are logically distinct, I suggest that distinguishing between these two levels is the best use of the term. Integrating across levels in research has potential risks, but many benefits. Consideration at one level can… CONTINUE READING
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