The lethal plant defense paradox remains: inducible host-plant aristolochic acids and the growth and defense of the pipevine swallowtail

Abstract

Toxic plants with sequestering specialists are presented with a problem because plant derived toxins protect herbivores against natural enemies. It has been suggested that early induction of toxins and later relaxation of these defenses may help the plant resolve this problem because neonate caterpillars incur the physiological cost of dealing with toxins… (More)

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