The spermatozoon of the parasitoid wasp Cotesia congregata is an extremely short gamete measuring less than 7 μm; it is as yet the shortest flagellated sperm to be identified. The mature sperm consists of an acrosome, surrounded by an extra cellular coat, a condensed nucleus, two uncoiled mitochondrial derivatives and a short axoneme. Testes of young adults contain a continuum of differentiation stages. Initially, the flagellum is approximately 5 μm long. It conserves its length in round, elongated and mature spermatids, but is reduced to less than 3 μm in mature spermatozoa. The nucleus is 2 μm in diameter when round, 10 μm long when it becomes a long boat-hull shaped filament, and then reduces to 3.6 μm. Thus, during development the gamete reaches a total length of 15 μm before finally reducing to less than half that length. Some traits of mature sperm anatomy are similar to related species of the Braconidae family, but others seem to be specific and could be due to the shortness of the cell. This uncommon elongation and subsequent shortening of such a tiny flagellated cell constitutes a model for both nucleus and cilium development.