- E. R. Birnbaum, J. E. Gomez, D. W. Darnall
- Amer. Chem. Soc. 92, 5287
The trivalent lanthanide ions, by virtue of the multitude of their spectroscopic and magnetic properties, are suitable as probes in studies of macromolecular environment, structure, and interactions. The approach is illustrated with examples from optical absorption, fluorescence, circularly polarized luminescence, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, and other physical techniques. In order to evaluate the significance of the approach, the activation and inhibition of enzymatic reactions by lanthanides is reviewed.