The lakes of Titan

  title={The lakes of Titan},
  author={Ellen R. Stofan and Charles Elachi and Jonathan I. Lunine and Ralph D. Lorenz and Bryan W. Stiles and Karl Mitchell and Steven Jeffrey Ostro and Laurence A. Soderblom and Charles A. Wood and Howard A. Zebker and Steve Wall and Michael A. Janssen and Randolph L. Kirk and R. M. C. Lopes and Flora Paganelli and Jani Radebaugh and Lauren C. Wye and Yanhua Anderson and M. Allison and R. A. Boehmer and Philip S. Callahan and Pierre J. Encrenaz and Enrico Flamini and G. Francescetti and Yonggyu Gim and Gary Hamilton and Scott Hensley and William T. K. Johnson and K. D. Kelleher and Duane O. Muhleman and Philippe Paillou and Giovanni Picardi and Francesco Posa and L. E. Roth and Roberto Seu and Scott J. Shaffer and Sergio Vetrella and Robert A. West},
The surface of Saturn’s haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging… 
Possible tropical lakes on Titan from observations of dark terrain
Radiative transfer analyses demonstrate that the resulting spectrum is consistent with a black surface, indicative of liquid methane on the surface of Titan, the continual photochemical depletion of which furnishes Titan's organic chemistry.
The case for seasonal surface changes at Titan’s lake district
Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, hosts lakes and seas of liquid hydrocarbons at its poles1. General circulation models demonstrate that regional evaporation and precipitation rates of methane are likely
Geology and surface processes on titan
The surface of Titan has been revealed globally, if incompletely, by Cassini observations at infrared and radar wavelengths as well as locally by the instruments on the Huygens probe. Extended dune
Limnological structure of Titan's hydrocarbon lakes and its astrobiological implication.
  • T. Tokano
  • Environmental Science
  • 2009
The physical properties of the lake and their temporal evolution under Titan's present climatic setting were investigated by means of a one-dimensional lake thermal stratification model, which suggested the viability of prebiotic-like chemistry in the lake may depend on many lake parameters, such as temperature, liquid or frozen state, and convective mixing.
Possible temperate lakes on Titan
Specular reflection on Titan: Liquids in Kraken Mare
After more than 50 close flybys of Titan by the Cassini spacecraft, it has become evident that features similar in morphology to terrestrial lakes and seas exist in Titan's polar regions. As Titan
Chapter 5 Geology and Surface Processes on Titan
Abstract The surface of Titan has been revealed globally, if incompletely, by Cassini observations at infrared and radar wavelengths as well as locally by the instruments on the Huygens probe.
Hydrocarbon lakes on Titan: Distribution and interaction with a porous regolith
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of Titan's north polar region reveal quasi‐circular to complex features which are interpreted to be liquid hydrocarbon lakes. We investigate methane transport in
The bathymetry of a Titan sea
We construct the depth profile—the bathymetry—of Titan's large sea Ligeia Mare from Cassini RADAR data collected during the 23 May 2013 (T91) nadir‐looking altimetry flyby. We find the greatest depth


Imaging of Titan from the Cassini spacecraft
Observations of Titan from the imaging science experiment onboard the Cassini spacecraft reveal intricate surface albedo features that suggest aeolian, tectonic and fluvial processes, and imply that substantial surface modification has occurred over Titan's history.
No oceans on Titan from the absence of a near-infrared specular reflection
Ground-based observations and calculations show that there is no evidence thus far for surface liquid on Titan, and infer mechanisms that produce very flat solid surfaces, involving a substance that was liquid in the past but is not in liquid form at the locations studied.
Rain, winds and haze during the Huygens probe's descent to Titan's surface
Spectra and high-resolution images obtained by the Huygens Probe Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer instrument in Titan's atmosphere reveal the traces of once flowing liquid, and like Earth, the brighter highland regions show complex systems draining into flat, dark lowlands.
Methane drizzle on Titan
It is shown that the in situ data on the methane concentration and temperature profile in Titan's troposphere point to the presence of layered optically thin stratiform clouds, indicating that methane precipitation occurs wherever there is slow upward motion.
Methane storms on Saturn's moon Titan
Three-dimensional dynamical calculations are reported showing that severe methane convective storms accompanied by intense precipitation may occur in Titan under the right environmental conditions.
Release of volatiles from a possible cryovolcano from near-infrared imaging of Titan
Near-infrared images of Titan obtained on 26 October 2004 by the Cassini spacecraft show that a widespread methane ocean does not exist; subtle albedo variations instead suggest topographical variations, as would be expected for a more solid (perhaps icy) surface.
In situ measurements of the physical characteristics of Titan's environment
The temperature and density profiles, as determined by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI), from an altitude of 1,400 km down to the surface were higher than expected and the extent of atmospheric electricity was also hitherto unknown.