The kinetics of solid-state isotope-exchange reactions for clumped isotopes: A study of inorganic calcites and apatites from natural and experimental samples

  title={The kinetics of solid-state isotope-exchange reactions for clumped isotopes: A study of inorganic calcites and apatites from natural and experimental samples},
  author={Daniel A Stolper and John Eiler},
  journal={American Journal of Science},
  pages={363 - 411}
Carbonate clumped-isotope geothermometry is a tool used to reconstruct formation or (re)equilibration temperatures of carbonate bearing minerals, including carbonate groups substituted into apatite. It is based on the preference for isotopologues with multiple heavy isotopes (for example, 13C16O218O2− groups) to be more abundant at equilibrium than would be expected if all isotopes were randomly distributed amongst all carbonate groups. Because this preference is only a function of temperature… Expand
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