The interaction of race, gender, and age in criminal sentencing: The punishment cost of being young, black, and male

@article{Steffensmeier1998TheIO,
  title={The interaction of race, gender, and age in criminal sentencing: The punishment cost of being young, black, and male},
  author={Darrell Steffensmeier and Jeffery T. Ulmer and John H. Kramer},
  journal={Criminology},
  year={1998},
  volume={36},
  pages={763-798}
}
Prior theory and research on sentencing oversimplify the role of race, gender and age in judicial decision making. In this article we present a “focal concerns” theory of judicial decision making to frame hypotheses regarding the effects on sentencing of these social statuses, both singly and in combination. Analyzing statewide sentencing outcomes in Pennsylvania for 1989–1992, we find that, net of controls: (1) young black males are sentenced more harshly than any other group, (2) race is most… 

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