Novel insights into redox system and the mechanism of redox regulation
In addition to the well known insulin-like effects of certain concentrations of H2O2 on glucose transport and oxidation in isolated rat adipocytes, the present work demonstrates that lipid synthesis from glucose is also enhanced over a narrow range of H2O2 concentrations (0.15 to 0.5 mM) added to the incubation medium. As in the case of insulin, H2O2 was found to stimulate greater glucose incorporation into glyceride-fatty acid than incorporation into glyceride-glycerol. As part of a multifaceted regulation of lipogenesis, H2O2, like insulin, increased the amount of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the active form without increasing the total amount of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity increased within 5 min of H2O2 incubation, reached a maximum at 15 min and declined thereafter as the H2O2 disappeared from the incubation medium. While medium glucose per se was found to activate the enzyme, it is unlikely that the effect of H2O2 was mediated by the known enhancement of glucose transport since the effects on the enzyme were maximal in the absence of glucose in the incubation medium. These findings add to the growing list of insulin effects that are reproduced by H2O2, and strengthen the hypothesis that assigns H2O2 the role of "second messenger" of insulin.