The injection century: massive unsterile injections and the emergence of human pathogens

  title={The injection century: massive unsterile injections and the emergence of human pathogens},
  author={Ernest M. Drucker and Phillip G. Alcabes and Preston A Marx},
  journal={The Lancet},

Unsafe injections in low-income country health settings: need for injection safety promotion to prevent the spread of blood-borne viruses.

  • M. Kermode
  • Medicine
    Health promotion international
  • 2004
This paper reviews the literature relating to unsafe injection practices and the transmission of BBVs in low-income countries in order to raise awareness of the issue and the consequent need to promote injection safety messages amongst both consumers and providers of health care services in these countries.

Potential for HIV transmission through unsafe injections

The data support a role for unsafe injections in the spread of HIV-1 in Africa, in contrast to recent studies.

Evidence of iatrogenic HIV transmission in children in South Africa

Investigation of iatrogenic outbreaks in Russia Romania and Libya has demonstrated both that medical injections are efficient vectors for HIV transmission and that rigorous application of safe injection procedures can virtually eliminate transmission.

The global burden of disease attributable to contaminated injections given in health care settings

Injection overuse and unsafe practices account for a substantial burden of death and disability worldwide and there is a need for policies and plans for the safe and appropriate use of injections in countries where practices are poor.


A better understanding of the evolving social dynamics of emerging infectious diseases ought to help to anticipate and hopefully ameliorate current and future risks.

Noninvasive vaccination against infectious diseases

The development of noninvasive immunization with vaccines based on live attenuated virus, recombinant adenovirus, inactivated virus, viral subunits, virus-like particles, DNA, RNA, and antigen expression in rice is reviewed in preclinical and clinical studies.

HIV and AIDS in relation to other pandemics

HIV's spread among humans seems set to continue unless the authors can develop a truly efficacious vaccine, and the societal and medical impact of AIDS is profound, and could affect human health and development in further surprising and unfortunate ways.

Unsafe Injection Practices: A Potential Weapon for the Outbreak of Blood Borne Viruses in the Community

The findings emphasize the role of unsafe injection practices in the community outbreak of hepatitis B infection, need to start routine surveillance system and increase awareness in health care workers regarding safe injection practices.

Parenteral transmission during excision and treatment of tuberculosis and trypanosomiasis may be responsible for the HIV-2 epidemic in Guinea-Bissau

Parenteral transmission through ritual excision and multiple injections during treatment of tuberculosis and trypanosomiasis contributed to the emergence of HIV-2 in Guinea-Bissau.



Unsafe injections in the developing world and transmission of bloodborne pathogens: a review.

It was estimated that each person in the developing world receives 1.5 injections per year on average, and unsafe injections currently account for a significant proportion of all new hepatitis B and C infections.

Injections: a fatal attraction?

  • A. Reeler
  • Medicine
    Social science & medicine
  • 1990

Epidemiology of hepatitis C

Although the incidence of acute hepatitis C has declined, there is a large reservoir of chronically infected Americans who can serve as a source of transmission to others and who are at risk of the severe consequences of chronic liver disease.

The global diffusion of injecting drug use: implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

The task of the public health system will be to find a balance between activities aimed at helping current injectors change their behavior and activities targeted at discouraging the adoption of drug injecting.

An African HIV-1 sequence from 1959 and implications for the origin of the epidemic

Multiple phylogenetic analyses not only authenticate this case as the oldest known HIV-1 infection, but also place its viral sequence near the ancestral node of subtypes B and D in the major group, indicating that these HIV- 1 subtypes, and perhaps all major-group viruses, may have evolved from a single introduction into the African population not long before 1959.


  • W. Hewitt
  • Medicine
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1967
It is, therefore, of interest that the development of Fleming’s discovery was responsible for a considerable, albeit temporary, lull in studies of host factors in the patient with infection and many medical men failed or refused to see the possibility of treating major acute bacterial infections in this area.

Isolation of a simian immunodeficiency virus related to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 from a west African pet sooty mangabey

Sequence comparisons revealed extensive genetic diversity among SIVsm isolates similar to that observed previously in SIV isolates from naturally infected African green monkeys, providing additional evidence for monkey-human cross-species transmission of Sivsm as the source of HIV-2 infection of human.

An African primate lentivirus (SIVsmclosely related to HIV-2

SIVsm has infected macaques in captivity and humans in West Africa and evolved as SIVmac and HIV-2, respectively, according to molecularly cloned and sequenced SIVsm.

Penicillin and other Antibiotics

Penicillin and other Antibiotics, modest in its scope and price, can be recommended ot those who are looking for an introdutory text-book on the antibiotics.

Specific passage of simian immunodeficiency virus from end-stage disease results in accelerated progression to AIDS in rhesus macaques.

Evidence that the virus became more virulent with selective passage of late-stage variants was provided by the markedly increased levels of both plasma antigen and viral RNA.