The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L. (III): variation in cannabichromene proportion

  title={The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L. (III): variation in cannabichromene proportion},
  author={Etienne de Meijer and K. M. Hammond and Mirta Micheler},
The mechanism that controls the proportion of cannabichromene (CBC), a potential pharmaceutical, in the cannabinoid fraction of Cannabis sativa L. is explored. [] Key Result Morphological variants possessing a ‘prolonged juvenile chemotype’ (PJC), a substantial proportion of CBC persisting up to maturity, are presented. PJC is associated with a reduced presence of floral bracts, bracteoles, and capitate-stalked trichomes.

The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L. (V): regulation of the propyl-/pentyl cannabinoid ratio, completion of a genetic model

Inbred lines derived from multi-cross hybrid combinations reached unprecedented PC3 levels of up to 96 % which supports the hypothesis of the regulation of C3/C5 ratios, and a model of a multiple locus A1–A2–…An is proposed, with the pentyl- and propyl cannabinoid pathway being enhanced by alleles Ape1−n and Apr1–n, respectively.

Development and validation of genetic markers for sex and cannabinoid chemotype in Cannabis sativa L.

High‐throughput PACE (PCR Allele Competitive Extension) assays for C. sativa plant sex and cannabinoid chemotype revealed segregation in hemp populations, and resolved plants producing predominantly THC, predominantly CBD, and roughly equal amounts of THC and CBD.

SNP in Potentially Defunct Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid Synthase Is a Marker for Cannabigerolic Acid Dominance in Cannabis sativa L.

It is confirmed that CBGA dominance is inherited as a single recessive gene, potentially governed by a non-functioning allelic variant of the THCA synthase, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that may render the synthase unable to convert CBGA to THCA leading to the accumulation of CBGA.

Analysis of Sequence Variability and Transcriptional Profile of Cannabinoid synthase Genes in Cannabis sativa L. Chemotypes with a Focus on Cannabichromenic acid synthase

The low but stable transcriptional level of CBCAS in all genotypes suggests that these genes are active and might contribute to the final amount of cannabinoids.

The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabissativa L. (IV): cannabinoid-free plants

Backcrossing produced cannabinoid-free homologues of pharmaceutical production clones with potential applications in pharmacological research and suggests that locus O governs a reaction in the pathway towards the phenolic cannabinoid precursors.

Cannabinoid Inheritance Relies on Complex Genetic Architecture.

Cannabinoid inheritance is more complex than previously appreciated; among other genetic effects, cytogenetic and maternal contributions may be undervalued influences on cannabinoid ratios and concentrations.

Chemical and Morphological Phenotypes in Breeding of Cannabis sativa L.

This chapter details five characters that contribute to phenotypic diversity in Cannabis and dissects the monogenic inheritance model (two alleles at a single gene locus).

Minor Cannabinoids: Biosynthesis, Molecular Pharmacology and Potential Therapeutic Uses

Initial clinical reports suggest that these cannabinoids may have potential benefits in the treatment of neuropathic pain, neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, cancer and skin disorders.

Identification of Chemotypic Markers in Three Chemotype Categories of Cannabis Using Secondary Metabolites Profiled in Inflorescences, Leaves, Stem Bark, and Roots

This study investigated the utility of the full spectrum of secondary metabolites in different plant parts in three cannabis chemotypes (THC dominant, intermediate, and CBD dominant) for chemotaxonomic discrimination and provides a comprehensive profile of bioactive compounds in three chemotypes for medical purposes.



The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L. (II): Cannabigerol predominant plants

B0 is considered as a member of the BD allelic series encoding a CBD synthase isoform with greatly weakened substrate affinity and/or catalytic capacity, and is plausible that this B0 is a mutation of normally functional BD.

A chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae).

A two-species concept of Cannabis is supported by the determined frequencies of B(D) and B(T) in sample populations of 157 Cannabis accessions determined from CBD and THC banding patterns, visualized by starch gel electrophoresis.

Time course of cannabinoid accumulation and chemotype development during the growth of Cannabis sativa L

It was confirmed that callus cultures of Cannabis were not able to produce detectable amounts of any cannabinoids, irrespective of the type and amount of cannabinoids in the mother plants.

Cannabinoid patterns in seedlings of Cannabis sativa L. and their use in the determination of chemical race

The cannabinoid contents of seedlings from twelve strains of Cannabis of known chemical race showed that the true leaves of the THC type contained a relatively high content of THC and also contained cannabichromene (CBC), sometimes as the major cannabinoid, whereas the CBD type had much lower amounts of THCand no CBC; CBD being the major component.

Purification and Characterization of Cannabidiolic-acid Synthase from Cannabis sativa L.

It is concluded that CBDA is predominantly biosynthesized from cannabigerolic acid rather than cannabinerolic acid, although the kcat for the former is lower than that for the latter, and that the enzymatic cyclization does not proceed via oxygenated intermediates.

Chemotaxonomy of Cannabis I. Crossbreeding between Cannabis sativa and C. ruderalis, with analysis of cannabinoid content

A controlled cross between Cannabis sativa L. and C. ruderalis Janisch gave progeny intermediate in both cannabinoid content and morphology, and Earliness of flowering, number of flowers, and height characteristics were intermediate between the parents.

Accumulation of Cannabinoids in Glandular Trichomes of Cannabis (Cannabaceae)

Knowledge of the mechanism of cannabinoid synthesis and localization can contribute to efforts to further reduce the THC content in hemp strains for potential agricultural use in the United States and elsewhere.

Cannabinoid composition in seedlings compared to adult plants of Cannabis sativa

It is shown that differences in cannabinoid contents occur during seedling development, and cannabinoid quantities in adult plants with those in seedlings are compared to determine the changes that occur as the plant matures.

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, the enzyme controlling marijuana psychoactivity, is secreted into the storage cavity of the glandular trichomes.

Results showed that secretory cells of the glandular trichomes secrete not only metabolites but also biosynthetic enzyme, which indicates that THCA is biosynthesized in the storage cavity of the glands.

Characterisation of Cannabis accessions with regard to cannabinoid content in relation to other plant characters

Variation within populations for cannabinoid content, and consistency of chemical characters at the population level were investigated and various combinations of cannabinoid content and other economic plant characters were observed, thus a breeding programme will not be hampered by strict linkage.