The influenza viruses

  title={The influenza viruses},
  author={Alan W. Hampson and John S. Mackenzie},
  journal={Medical Journal of Australia},
Human epidemic influenza is caused by influenza type A and B viruses, which continually undergo antigenic change in their surface antigens, haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). Influenza epidemics are the consequence of small, ongoing antigenic changes known as “antigenic drift”, which occurs in both influenza types. Pandemic influenza occurs at irregular and unpredictable intervals, and is the result of a major antigenic change known as “antigenic shift”, which occurs only in influenza A… 
The Influenza Pandemic of 2009
An overview of influenza infection since 1847 and the advent of influenza vaccination since 1944 is provided and immediate identification of impending epidemic and pandemic strains, as well as sustained vigilance and collaboration, demonstrate continued success in combating influenza.
Swine flu and the current influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in humans: a review.
The current swine origin novel influenza A (H1N1) virus is a quadruple-reassortant, which has gene segments from both North American and Eurasian swine lineages along with human and avian influenza viral genes, and has gained the capability for human to human spread without affecting pigs.
Pathogenicity for Chickens of Avian Influenza Virus Strain H9N1 Isolated from Water Coot in India
The present H9N1 virus isolated in India is of low pathogenic, it indicates the present Avian Influenza virus capable of causing severe respiratory disease and high mortality in infecte d chickens and can be transmitted directly to humans.
Novel Influenza A (H1N1): the twenty-first century influenza pandemic
It can be concluded that Novel Influenza A (H1N1) can substantially transmit from human-to-human and may save many excess deaths in this pandemic.
A Host-Restricted Self-Attenuated Influenza Virus Provides Broad Pan-Influenza A Protection in a Mouse Model
The data show that the host-restricted designer vaccine serves an option for developing a UIV, providing pan-influenza A protection against both group 1 and 2 influenza viruses.
Passage of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses mediates rapid genetic adaptation of a wild-bird isolate in poultry
Results showed that a selection process favoring a viral subpopulation had occurred in the parental virus, where a 20-amino-acid deletion in the NA gene that was observed during the first passage was maintained during subsequent passages.
Public Health Importance and Pandemic Potentials/Threats of Influenza Viruses
Pigs act as a ‘mixing vessel’ and have played an important role in the evolution of a novel subtype of Swine flu (H1N1 subtype) virus that has enormous pandemic potential.
Anti-influenza drugs: the development of sialidase inhibitors.
An overview of the role of the virus-associated glycoprotein sialidase (neuraminidase) and some of the most recent developments towards the discovery of anti-influenza drugs based on the inhibition of influenza virus sialidsase is provided in this chapter.


Antigenic variation in influenza viruses.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza.
Control programmes, which imply allowing a low incidence of infection, are not an acceptable method for managing HPAI, but have been used during some outbreaks of MPAI.
Pandemic influenza: a zoonosis?
Evidence is presented that points strongly to pandemic influenza being a zoonosis, and consideration is given to the temporal and geographical factors and range of hosts, namely the duck, pig, and human, that need to be submitted to virus surveillance in China and beyond to attempt to anticipate a future pandemic.
Influenza A virus (H5N1) infection in cats causes systemic disease with potential novel routes of virus spread within and between hosts.
This study in cats demonstrates that H5N1 virus infection causes systemic disease and spreads by potentially novel routes within and between mammalian hosts.
Lack of transmission of H5N1 avian–human reassortant influenza viruses in a ferret model
It is suggested that H5N1 viruses may require further adaptation to acquire this essential pandemic trait, and the complexity of the genetic basis of influenza virus transmissibility is highlighted.
Origin and evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Asia
The H5N1 viruses have reportedly been eliminated from three of the nine countries that reported disease in 2003/04, but they could be extremely difficult to eradicate from the remaining countries, owing to the existence of populations and, possibly, production and marketing sectors, in which apparently normal birds harbour the viruses.
On the origin of pandemic influenza viruses.
  • R. Webster
  • Medicine
    Current topics in microbiology and immunology
  • 1972
Two kinds of antigenic variation occur in influenza viruses, antigenic drift and major antigenic shifts; both involve changes in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens on the surface of the virus.
Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase genes
The influenza A viral heterotrimeric polymerase complex (PA, PB1, PB2) is known to be involved in many aspects of viral replication and to interact with host factors, thereby having a role in host
Avian influenza: recent developments
The human health implications have now gained importance, both for illness and fatalities that have occurred following natural infection with avian viruses, and for the potential of generating a reassortant virus that could give rise to the next human influenza pandemic.
Characterization of a Novel Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Subtype (H16) Obtained from Black-Headed Gulls
A previously unidentified antigenic subtype of HA (H16), detected in viruses circulating in black-headed gulls in Sweden, is described and proposed that sequence analyses of HA and NA genes of influenza A viruses be used for the rapid identification of existing and novel HA andNA subtypes.