More Evidence for Three Types of Cognitive Style: Validating the Object‐Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire Using Eye Tracking when Learning with Texts and Pictures
a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Cognitive style Instructional animation Instructional picture Visualization ATI-effects Multimedia In a 2 × 2 design, we examined the role of visual cognitive style in two multimedia-based learning environments (text plus static pictures/animations). A statistically significant interaction was obtained for deeper comprehension: Highly developed visualizers (HDV) who learned with static pictures performed better than HDV who learned with animations, and less developed visualizers (LDV) performed the same with static pictures or animations. For factual knowledge, there was a main effect in favor of HDV. Subsequent tests revealed that HDV outperformed LDV only when learning from static pictures, but not when studying animations. There were no overall differences between animations and static pictures. The assumption is made that HDV benefit from their cognitive style when they have to construct a mental animation from static pictures. Concluding, we did not find any rationale for converting static pictures to animations — HDV learned better with static pictures, while for LDV, it made no difference. Within the whole area of research on multimedia learning a considerable number of studies have been carried out to answer the question whether instructional animations or static pictures might be the better solution for learning and understanding (e.