The influence of retrieval on retention

  title={The influence of retrieval on retention},
  author={Mark Carrier and Harold Pashler},
  journal={Memory \& Cognition},
Four experiments tested the hypothesis that successful retrieval of an item from memory affects retention only because the retrieval provides an additional presentation of the target item. Two methods of learning paired associates were compared, In the pure study trial (pure ST condition) method, both items of a pair were presented simultaneously for study. In the test trial/study trial (TTST condition) method, subjects attempted to retrieve the response term during aperiod in which only the… 
Retrieval practice enhances the accessibility but not the quality of memory
Rec retrieval practice increases the probability of successful memory retrieval but does not improve memory quality, and three experiments using a mixture modeling approach provide a measure of both the probabilities of recall and the quality of the recalled memories.
The pretesting effect: do unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance learning?
The authors examined the effect of unsuccessful retrieval attempts on learning by reading an essay about vision and found that posttest performance was better in the test condition than in the extended study condition in all experiments--a pretesting effect.
Attention and the testing effect.
Final recall was substantially reduced by DA in the restudy condition but not in the retrieval condition, and this pattern was found for related and unrelated word pairs, with feedback during retrieval practice and without, for immediate as well as delayed final tests.
How crucial is the response format for the testing effect?
To conclude, overt testing was more beneficial for later retention than covert testing, but the effect size was small.
The effect of unsuccessful retrieval on children's subsequent learning.
Testing enhances memory for context
Impoverished cue support enhances subsequent retention: Support for the elaborative retrieval explanation of the testing effect
It is suggested that an intervening test may be most beneficial to final retention when it provides more potential for elaborative processing.
New Conceptual Associative Learning in Amnesia: A Case Study
Abstract We report two experiments in this article that were designed to investigate the role of retrieval constraints and interference in implicit learning of new verbal associations in a densely


Altering memory through recall: The effects of cue-guided retrieval processing
Delayed recall was facilitated primarily when the cue on the immediate test was from the same level as the Cue on the delayed test, which suggests that immediate cued-recall produces an elaboration of an existing memory representation that is closely tied to the type of cue used on the immediately test.
Output effects in multitrial free recall
A test of the differences between anticipation and study-test methods of paired-associate learning.
  • C. Izawa
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 1985
The identity model proposes that anticipation and study-test methods of paired-associate learning differ little in basic acquisition, retrieval, and storage processes per event: study, test, and