The influence of relative age on success and dropout in male soccer players

  title={The influence of relative age on success and dropout in male soccer players},
  author={Werner F. Helsen and Janet L. Starkes and Jan van Winckel},
  journal={American Journal of Human Biology},
The consistent asymmetry in the birth‐date distribution of senior professional soccer players has led us to investigate whether similar asymmetries emerge throughout youth categories in soccer. Birth dates were considered for professional players, national youth teams, youth players transferred to top teams, and regular youth league players. Kolmogorov Smirnov tests assessed differences between observed and expected birth‐date distributions. Regression analyses examined the relationship between… 

The relative age effect in youth soccer across Europe

The results showed an over-representation of players born in the first quarter of the selection year for all the national youth selections at the under-15, under-16, U-17 and U-18 age categories, as well as for the UEFA U-16 tournaments and Meridian Cup.

The relative age effect in soccer: A match-related perspective

It is suggested that match-based variables may provide a more reliable indication of the relative age effect in soccer.

Effect of a change in selection year on success in male soccer players

Investigation of changes in birth‐date distributions throughout youth categories for 1996–1997 compared to the 1997–1998 competitive years indicated that from 1996 to 1997, youth players born from January to March were more likely to be identified as “talented” and to be exposed to higher levels of coaching.

The Relative Age Effect (RAE) in Youth and Professional Soccer Players in Turkey

It is suggested that competitor player age grades should revive for youths in the maturation phases as the RAE was a major factor in the selection of elite soccer players in Turkey.

An Examination of Relative Age and Athlete Dropout in Female Developmental Soccer

Sport dropout rates among children and youth are a concern for researchers and policy makers. The impact of relative age effects (RAEs) on dropout trends has not been adequately examined in female

The relative age effect in youth soccer players from Spain.

There was RAE in all groups analyzed, although only the Elite groups showed significant variations in birth-date distribution in relation to the general population.

The relative age effect in youth soccer players from Spain.

The purpose of this study was to identify the existence of Relative Age Effect (RAE) at youth level in both elite and amateur Spanish soccer clubs, and also to carry out an analysis providing with

Geographical Variations in the Interaction of Relative Age Effects in Youth and Adult Elite Soccer

Test for carry-over effects from previously found constituent year effects among players participating in the 2014 soccer World Cup and for long-term effects of age grouping structures used during earlier stages of talent development indicate that long- term effects ofAge grouping structures in earlier high-level talent development structures exist.

The relative age effect in European professional soccer: Did ten years of research make any difference?

A change in the structure of youth involvement in soccer is proposed to reduce the impact of the RAE on talent identification and selection, emphasizing the robust nature of this phenomenon.

The relative age effect in a professional football club setting

Between-group comparison revealed that the relative age effect incidence progressively increased with a higher level of involvement in youth football, representing a significant loss of potential youth football talent.



Birthdate and success in minor hockey: The key to the NHL

Previous research (Barnsley, Thompson, & Barnsley, 198S) demonstrated an extremely strong linear relationship between the month of birth (from January to December) and the likelihood of playing in

Family Planning: Football Style. The Relative Age Effect in Football

Recent studies indicate that month of birth is related to achievement in a number of sports. Birth dates were collected for all players on teams competing in the 1990 World Cup and the 1989 Under-17s

Seasonality of births in a rural Zapotec municipio, 1945-1970.

Ethnographic observations for Zapotec communities suggest that the seasonal distribution of births may reflect the cultural pattern associated with the annual agricultural cycle and clinical observations indicate anxiety as a significant factor in male infertility.


(1967). THE EFFECT OF DATE OF BIRTH ON TEACHERS’ ASSESSMENTS OF CHILDREN. Educational Research: Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 51-56.

Season of Birth and Cognitive Development

Certain groups of handicapped children clearly contain a high incidence of those born in the summer. The fault seems to lie with the British educational system.

Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences.

This is the revision of the classic text in the field, adding two new chapters and thoroughly updating all others. The original structure is retained, and the book continues to serve as a combined

“Born to Play Ball” The Relative Age Effect and Major League Baseball

The records of 837 major league baseball players were examined in order to determine whether the Little League age eligibility criterion, based on the month of birth, affected participation rate at

Anthropometric Correlates of Strength end Motor Performance

  • R. Malina
  • Medicine
    Exercise and sport sciences reviews
  • 1975