The effects of P, N and Ca+Mg fertilization on biomass production, leaf area, root length, vesiculararbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) colonization, and shoot and root nutrient concentrations of pretransplant rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were investigated. Mycorrhizal plants generally had a higher biomass and P, N, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na, B, Zn, Al, Mg, and S shoot-tissue nutrient concentrations than non-mycorrhizal plants. Although mycorrhizal plants always had higher root-tissue nutrient concentrations than non-mycorrhizal plants, they were not significantly different, except for Mn. N fertilization stimulated colonization of the root system (colonized root length), and increased biomass production and nutrient concentrations of mycorrhizal plants. Biomass increases due to N were larger when the plants were not fertilized with additional P. P fertilization reduced the colonized root length and biomass production of mycorrhizal plants. The base treatment (Ca+Mg) did not significantly affect biomass production but increased the colonized root length. These results stress the importance of evaluating the VAM rice symbiosis under various fertilization regimes. The results of this study suggest that pretransplant mycorrhizal rice plants may have a potential for better field establishment than non-mycorrhizal plants.