The influence of caudofemoral musculature on the titanosaurian (Saurischia: Sauropoda) tail skeleton: morphological and phylogenetic implications

  title={The influence of caudofemoral musculature on the titanosaurian (Saurischia: Sauropoda) tail skeleton: morphological and phylogenetic implications},
  author={Lucio Manuel Ibiricu and Matthew C. Lamanna and Kenneth J Lacovara},
  journal={Historical Biology},
  pages={454 - 471}
Due to their abundance, taxonomic and morphological diversity, wide range of body sizes and broad geographical distribution, titanosaurian sauropods were one of the most important Cretaceous herbivorous dinosaur groups. Consequently, titanosaurs constitute one of the best samples in which to evaluate the relationship between bony structures and unpreserved soft-tissues within Sauropoda. We reconstruct the morphology and interpret the implications of selected soft-tissues associated with the… 
Appendicular Osteology of Dreadnoughtus schrani, a Giant Titanosaurian (Sauropoda, Titanosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina
ABSTRACT The postcranial anatomy of giant titanosaurians remains poorly known because of a combination of preservational and collection biases. Dreadnoughtus schrani, a recently described, large
The Axial Skeleton of Rinconsaurus caudamirus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina
Abstract. Titanosaurs were the predominant herbivores during the Late Cretaceous, inhabiting all continents. This clade was especially diverse in South America with some of the largest and smallest
A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot
The complete pes of the new taxon exhibits a strikingly compact, homogeneous metatarsus—seemingly adapted for bearing extraordinary weight—and truncated unguals, morphologies that are otherwise unknown in Sauropoda.
Appendicular myological reconstruction of the forelimb of the giant titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur Dreadnoughtus schrani
This study reconstructs the forelimb and shoulder girdle musculature of the giant titanosaurian sauropod Dreadnoughtus schrani based on observations of osteological correlates and dissections of taxa comprising the Extant Phylogenetic Bracket of non‐avian dinosaurs (crocodilians and birds).
The earliest known titanosauriform sauropod dinosaur and the evolution of Brachiosauridae
Vouivria is a basal brachiosaurid, confirming its status as the stratigraphically oldest known titanosauriform, and implementation of sensitivity analyses, in which these characters are excluded, has no effect on tree topology or resolution.
Walking with early dinosaurs: appendicular myology of the Late Triassic sauropodomorph Thecodontosaurus antiquus
This reconstruction helps to elucidate the timing of important modifications of the appendicular musculature in the evolution of sauropodomorphs which facilitated the transition to quadrupedalism and contributed to their evolutionary success.
Investigating the enigmatic Aeolosaurini clade: the caudal biomechanics of Aeolosaurus maximus (Aeolosaurini/Sauropoda) using the neutral pose method and the first case of protonic tail condition in Sauropoda
ABSTRACT The neck posture and function in sauropods have been widely studied during the last decades. The cartilaginous neutral pose (CNP) method is commonly used in biomechanical reconstructions by
Re-assessment of the Late Jurassic eusauropod dinosaur Hudiesaurus sinojapanorum Dong, 1997, from the Turpan Basin, China, and the evolution of hyper-robust antebrachia in sauropods
Phylogenetic analyses confirm that Hudiesaurus is a CMT and the sister taxon of Xinjiangtitan, and links the convergent evolution of robust antebrachia and an enlarged olecranon in CMTs, titanosaurs, and some ornithischians to a more flexed orientation of the forearm, an enhanced role for the forelimb in locomotion, and an anterior shift in the whole-body center of mass.
Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan
Three-dimensional computational models and phylogenetic reconstructions are combined to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation, finding that relative neck size and CoM position are not strongly correlated with inferred feeding habits.
Tafonomía del titanosaurio Aeolosaurus colhuehuapensis, Cretácico Superior, Patagonia central, Argentina: un ejemplo de preservación en facies fluviales de desbordamiento
Rests of Aeolosaurus colhuehuapensis, a titanosaur from the Colhue Huapi lake, in the southern Chubut Province, Argentina, were analyzed. The materials under study include twenty one caudal vertebrae


Anatomy of the basal titanosaur (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) Andesaurus delgadoi from the mid-Cretaceous (Albian–early Cenomanian) Río Limay Formation, Neuquén Province, Argentina: implications for titanosaur systematics
The holotype of Andesaurus delgadoi is re-describe, comprising dorsal, sacral, and caudal vertebrae, as well as limb and pelvic elements, and putative titanosaur synapomorphies are recognized.
Andesaurus delgadoi gen et sp. nov. (Saurischia-Sauropoda), dinosaurio Titanosauridae de la formacion Río Limay (Albiano-Cenomaniano), Neuquen, Argentina
A good part of the postcranial skeleton of an Albian-Cenomanian primitive titanosaurid from Patagonia is described and discussed, and it is argued that the latter were endemic and very diversified, representing the major herbivorous group of the Late Cretaceous fauna of Gondwana.
The Tail of Tyrannosaurus: Reassessing the Size and Locomotive Importance of the M. caudofemoralis in Non‐Avian Theropods
The resulting contractile force and torque estimates presented here indicate a sizable investment in locomotive muscle among theropods with a range of body sizes and give new evidence in favor of greater athleticism, in terms of overall cursoriality, balance, and turning agility.
A new titanosaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous continental deposits of the Bauru Group is described, diagnosed by a combination of characters such as elongated cervicals and middorsals, dorsal vertebrae 9 and 10 with incipient postzygodiapophyseal lamina and transverse processes well developed throughout the sequence formed by anterior and medial caudals.
The postcranial osteology of Rapetosaurus krausei (Sauropoda: Titanosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar
ABSTRACT Rapetosaurus krausei is a titanosaur sauropod from the Upper Cretaceous Maevarano Formation of northwestern Madagascar and is among the most complete titanosaurs ever discovered. To date,
New Remains Attributable to the Holotype of the Sauropod Dinosaur Neuquensaurus australis, with Implications for Saltasaurine Systematics
Morphological differences in the number, shape, and proportion of sacral vertebrae allow discrimination between Neuquensaurus and Saltasaurus, confirming their generic separation.
Sauropod haemal arches: morphotypes, new classification and phylogenetic aspects
Two new characters related to middle chevrons are proposed here, in which the transitional morphology is described.
Description of a Titanosaurid caudal series from the Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous of Brazil
A new titanosaurid, Baurutitan britoi n. gen., n. sp., is described and compared with other taxa of that sauropod clade. The specimen (MCT 1490-R) consists of the last sacral followed by a sequence
The pelvic musucJature of the dinosaur Hypsilophodon (Reptilia: Ornithischia)
Evidence is provided to show that: 1) the prepubic process, diagnostic of an ornithischian, did not provide the main support for the abdomen; 2) the abdomen was large and extended ventral to the
The phylogenetic relationships of sauropod dinosaurs
The results suggest that there are dangers inherent in the view that ‘higher’ level sauropod phylogeny can be accurately reconstructed using only a small number of well-known taxa, and that the results of the randomization tests indicate that the data-matrix probably contains a strong phylogenetic ‘signal’.