The inferiority complex in paranoia readdressed: A study with the Implicit Association Test

@article{Moritz2006TheIC,
  title={The inferiority complex in paranoia readdressed: A study with the Implicit Association Test},
  author={Steffen Moritz and Ronny Werner and Gernot von Collani},
  journal={Cognitive Neuropsychiatry},
  year={2006},
  volume={11},
  pages={402 - 415}
}
Introduction. It has been theorised that patients with persecutory delusions display a lack of covert self‐esteem (formerly termed the ‘inferiority complex’), while at the same time displaying normal or even heightened levels of explicit self‐esteem. However, the empirical basis for this assumption is inconsistent. Methods. In view of apparent shortcomings of prior studies to assess implicit self‐esteem, the Implicit Association Test was utilised to readdress this theory. The Rosenberg scale… 
Implicit and explicit self-esteem discrepancies in paranoia and depression.
TLDR
The authors' analysis revealed that depressed patients showed lower explicit SE than did paranoid and healthy control participants, however, participants with persecutory delusions had significantly lower implicit SE scores than did healthy controls.
When paranoia fails to enhance self-esteem: Explicit and implicit self-esteem and its discrepancy in patients with persecutory delusions compared to depressed and healthy controls
TLDR
Although the findings do not support the hypothesis that delusions serve to enhance self-esteem, they underline the relevance of low self- esteem in patients with persecutory delusions and point to the necessity of enhancingSelf-esteem in therapy.
Is the content of persecutory delusions relevant to self-esteem?
Background: Persecutory delusions are often associated with low self-esteem, depression and emotional distress. However, some patients acknowledge that their beliefs positively impact on their
Persecutory delusions and the self: An investigation of implicit and explicit self-esteem.
TLDR
The results do not support the contention that persecutory delusions defend against negative self-representations and low self-esteem reaching conscious awareness.
Defensive function of persecutory delusion and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem in schizophrenia: study using the Brief Implicit Association Test
TLDR
The results suggest that persecutory delusion plays a defensive role in non-self-blaming paranoia, and implicit self-esteem in paranoia and nonparanoia showed no statistical difference.
Attributional Style in Schizophrenia: Evidence for a Decreased Sense of Self-Causation in Currently Paranoid Patients
It has been suggested that an exaggerated self-serving bias may underlie the formation of paranoia. One goal of the present study was to explore whether an abnormality of attributional style is
The paranoia as defence model of persecutory delusions: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
TLDR
A comprehensive meta-analytical test of the key predictions of the defensive model's predictions in relation to persecutory delusions found self-esteem instability was positively correlated with paranoia severity in psychosis, and paranoia severityIn psychosis was negatively correlated with explicit self- esteem.
Persecutory delusions and the conditioned avoidance paradigm: Towards an integration of the psychology and biology of paranoia
TLDR
The psychological significance of the CAR model of antipsychotic drug action is reappraised; this is related to contemporary psychological theories of paranoia, and some normal psychological and biological processes that are pathologically activated in paranoid psychosis are activated.
The relevance of self-esteem and self-schemas to persecutory delusions: a systematic review.
TLDR
The reviewed studies consistently found low global explicit self-esteem and negative self-schemas in persons with PD, which do not support the theory that PD serve to enhance self- esteem but underline the Theory that they directly reflect specific negative Self-esteem problems.
Self-attacking and self-reassurance in persecutory delusions: A comparison of healthy, depressed and paranoid individuals
TLDR
People with persecutory delusions engaged in more self-attacking of a hateful nature and less self-reassurance than non-psychiatric controls, but not people with depression, while those with depression were less likely to report criticising themselves for self-corrective reasons.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES
Self-discrepancies and persecutory delusions: evidence for a model of paranoid ideation.
TLDR
The self-discrepancies of paranoid patients, depressed patients, and nonpatients were examined using a modified version of Higgins's Selves Questionnaire and Paranoid patients alone displayed a high degree of consistency between self-perceptions and self-guides together with discrepancies betweenSelf-Perceptions and the believed perceptions of parents about the self.
Social cognition and subclinical paranoid ideation.
  • J. Martin, D. Penn
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The British journal of clinical psychology
  • 2001
TLDR
It is suggested that mood, anxiety and perceptions of the self are related to paranoid ideation in a nonclinical sample by examining the linear relationship between persecutory ideation and multiple clinical and social cognitive variables.
The London-East Anglia randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behaviour therapy for psychosis. IV: Self-esteem and persecutory delusions.
TLDR
There was evidence that the majority of persecutory delusions do not fit either strong or weak formulations of the delusion-as-defence explanation and that there may be subgroups with differing aetiologies.
Persecutory delusions: a review and theoretical integration.
TLDR
It is argued that biases in this cycle cause negative events to be attributed to external agents and hence contribute to the building of a paranoid world view, and a new integrative model is proposed that builds on this work.
Cognitive neuropsychiatric models of persecutory delusions.
TLDR
The major cognitive theories of persecutory delusion formation and maintenance are critically examined and the interaction of these cognitive processes, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, at cognitive psychological, neural network, and functional neuroanatomical levels are warranted to establish a comprehensive cognitive neuropsychiatric model of the persecutory delusions.
Delusions and Self-Esteem
  • B. Bowins, G. Shugar
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie
  • 1998
TLDR
This study demonstrates that 2 specific personality factors, global self-esteem and self-regard, are reflected in the content of delusions and influence whether those delusions are experienced as comfortable (or uncomfortable) and enhancing (or diminishing).
The defensive function of persecutory delusions. Evidence from attribution tasks.
TLDR
Depressed and normal subjects showed similar causal inferences for both attributional measures, but deluded subjects showed a marked shift in internality, attributing negative outcomes to external causes on the transparent Attributional Style Questionnaire but, on the more opaque Pragmatic Inference Task, showing a cognitive style resembling that of the depressed group.
Attributional style in paranoid vs. depressed patients.
TLDR
The Attributional Style Questionnaire was given to three groups of 15 adult patients and predicted that the paranoid patients manifested an attributional style opposite to that of the depressed patients: that is, they tended to attribute good events to themselves and bad events to others or to chance.
Clarifying the role of the "other" category in the self-esteem IAT.
TLDR
Validity of the self-esteem IAT is most appropriately assessed by examining its correlations with conceptually related measures and choice of the appropriate other category to contrast with self in self- esteem IATs should be guided by the needs of the research question.
Implicit attitudes towards homosexuality: reliability, validity, and controllability of the IAT.
  • R. Banse, J. Seise, N. Zerbes
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Zeitschrift fur experimentelle Psychologie : Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Psychologie
  • 2001
TLDR
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the psychometric properties of an Implicit Association Test that was adapted to measure implicit attitudes towards homosexuality, and it was shown that uninformed participants were able to fake positive explicit but not implicit attitudes.
...
1
2
3
4
...