The induction of reciprocal translocation in rhesus monkey spermatogonial stem cells was studied following exposure to low doses of acute X rays (0.25 Gy, 300 mGy/min) or to low-dose-rate X rays (1 Gy, 2 mGy/min) and gamma rays (1 Gy, 0.2 mGy/min). The results obtained at 0.25 Gy of X rays fitted exactly the linear extrapolation down from the 0.5 and 1.0 Gy points obtained earlier. Extension of X-ray exposure reduced the yield of translocations similar to that in the mouse by about 50%. The reduction to 40% of translocation rate after chronic gamma exposure was clearly less than the value of about 80% reported for the mouse over the same range of dose rates. Differential cell killing with ensuing differential elimination of aberration-carrying cells is the most likely explanation for the differences between mouse and monkey.