The increased efficiency of fish swimming in a school

  title={The increased efficiency of fish swimming in a school},
  author={Charlotte K. Hemelrijk and D. Reid and Hanno Hildenbrandt and Johan T Padding},
There is increasing evidence that fish gain energetic benefits when they swim in a school. The most recent indications of such benefits are a lower tail (or fin) beat at the back of a school and reduced oxygen consumption in schooling fish versus solitary ones. How such advantages may arise is poorly understood. Current hydrodynamic theories concern either fish swimming side by side or in a diamond configuration and they largely ignore effects of viscosity and interactions among wakes and… CONTINUE READING
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