The in vitro hydrolysis of phytosterol conjugates in food matrices by mammalian digestive enzymes

  title={The in vitro hydrolysis of phytosterol conjugates in food matrices by mammalian digestive enzymes},
  author={Robert A. Moreau and Kevin B. Hicks},
All fruits, vegetables, and grains contain phytosterols. Numerous clinical studies have documented that phytosterols lower LDL-cholesterol levels and thereby reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Most experts believe that the cholesterol-lowering mechanism of phytosterols requires that they be in their “free” form. In addition to their occurrence in the free form, phytosterols also occur as four common phytosterol conjugates: (i) fatty acyl esters, (ii) hydroxycinnamate esters, (iii… 

Phytosterols esterified with conjugated linoleic acid. In vitro intestinal digestion and interaction on cholesterol bioaccessibility.

Intestinal in vitro digestion of phytosterols esterified with conjugated linoleic acid (PS-CLA) was performed to study (1) the potential bioaccessibility of the released bioactive-lipid products and

Phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans.

The results suggest that natural phytosterol glycosides purified from lecithin are bioactive in humans and should be included in methods of phydosterol analysis and tables of food phyt Fosterol content.

Evaluation of Pure Bile Salts in Place of Bile Extract in the Standardized INFOGEST Digestion Protocol for Quantification of Sterol Bioaccessibility.

The results suggest that the INFOGEST model should include Ch esterase and the continued use of bile extract to evaluate PS BA, and the substitution of pure bile salts did not significantly change PS BA or Ch micellarization.

The effect of in vitro digestion on steryl ferulates from rice (Oryza sativa L.) and other grains.

It is suggested that intestinal enzymes immediately hydrolyze steryl ferulates, which are liberated from the grain matrix, and thus they are practically unavailable for absorption in the small intestine.

Enzymatic hydrolysis of steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides

The potential use of enzymes as a replacement for acid hydrolysis in analytical procedures for SG is demonstrated for the first time and insights are provided about the potential bioavailability of these sterol derivatives in human digestive systems.

Phytosterols, Cholesterol Absorption and Healthy Diets

The purpose of this review is to outline the emerging role of dietary phytosterols in human health and to suggest that the retention of phyllosterols during food manufacturing and the use of foods with highphytosterol content may constitute an alternative to theUse of supplements.

Glycosidic Bond Cleavage is Not Required for Phytosteryl Glycoside-Induced Reduction of Cholesterol Absorption in Mice

It is demonstrated that ASG reduces cholesterol absorption in mice as efficiently as PSE while having little systemic absorption itself.



Improved method for the synthesis of trans-feruloyl-beta-sitostanol.

The process was successfully applied to synthesize stanol trans-feruloyl esters from "Vegetable Stanols", a mixture of approximately 70:30 beta-sitostanol and beta-campestanol, in comparable purity and yield.

Evaluation of a commercial enzyme-based serum cholesterol test kit for analysis of phytosterol and phytostanol products.

A popular commercial spectrophotometric serum cholesterol test kit was evaluated and results indicate that the method could be modified to analyze phytosterols and phytostanols by increasing the incubation time.

Metabolism of sitosteryl β-D-glucoside and its nutritional effects in rats

Analyses of steryl lipids of the various organs and tissues confirmed the findings obtained with the radioactive substrate: neither sitosteryl β-D-glucoside nor sitosterol orSitosteryl esters derived therefrom had been transported in appreciable amounts to organs and tissue outside the alimentary canal during the feeding period.

Metabolic effects of plant sterols and stanols (Review).

Xylanase treatment of plant cells induces glycosylation and fatty acylation of phytosterols

It is demonstrated that xylanase from Trichoderma viride induces a dramatic shift in the level of acylated sterol glycosides, indicating that endoxylanase was probably the active component in the cellulase enzyme preparations used in the previous study.

Absorption and metabolism of γ-oryzanol in rats

It is considered that γ-oryzanol administered orally is absorbed mainly into the blood via the portal vein system, not into the lymph via the thoracic duct.

Quantitation of steryl ferulate andp-coumarate esters from corn and rice

The data presented provide a direct comparison of steryl ferulate andp-coumarate levels in the two cereals, and will aid in selecting the most suitable sources for the isolation of these compounds from corn products.

Serum, biliary, and fecal cholesterol and plant sterols in colectomized patients before and during consumption of stanol ester margarine.

Small amounts of plant stanols are recovered in serum and bile during consumption of stanol esters but effectively are secreted through bile, thereby balancing the intake-induced increase in their absorption.

Effect of esterified 4-desmethylsterols and -stanols or 4,4′-dimethylsterols on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in hamsters

Esterified sterols and stanols were equally effective in lowering plasma TC and LDL cholesterol, while dimethylsterol esters caused a weaker cholesterol-lowering effect.